• V. Sivapriya Nano-bio translational research laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam – 638 401, Erode district, Tamil Nadu.
  • S. Ponnarmadha Nano-bio translational research laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam – 638 401, Erode district, Tamil Nadu.
  • N. Abdul Azeezand Nano-bio translational research laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam – 638 401, Erode district, Tamil Nadu.
  • V. Sudarshanadeepa Nano-bio translational research laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam – 638 401, Erode district, Tamil Nadu.



Bioavailability, Nanocarriers, Drug delivery, Ethnopharmacology, Phospholipid bilayer, Vesicular drug delivery


A numerous novel drug delivery system has been emerged by combining herbal medicine with nanotechnology to administer drugs encompassing the enhancement of compatibility and efficacy. The herbal phytoconstituents are compatible compared to the chemical active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). But the therapeutic consequence of the phytoconstituent is limited due to poor aqueous solubility. Therefore, the demand to develop a system which improves the solubility of the phytomedicine is mounting rapidly. Nanotechnology plays a vital role in increasing the solubility, enhancing the bioavailability and improving the drug specificity of bioactive constituents. Nanosystems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, phytosomes, ethosomes, nanoemulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles are used to deliver the bioactive constituent at an adequate dose to the site of action and during the entire treatment period. The current review discusses the various novel drug delivery systems which have been developed to attain better therapeutic response of the herbal drug.


Download data is not yet available.


Li FS, Weng JK. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with a modern approach. Nature Plants 2017;3:17109.

Priyanka P, Brahmeshwar M. Systematic review on interaction studies of synthetic antidiabetic drugs and herbal therapies. J Pharma Res 2017;16:86.

Tanmoy S, Buddhadev L, Swayam P. Incorporation of lipolysis in monolayer permeability studies of lipid-based oral drug delivery systems. Drug Delivery Transl Res 2017;17:1-12.

Nalini T, Sugantha Kumari V, Khaleel Basha S. Novel nanosystems for herbal drug delivery. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;6:1447-63.

Kusum D, Nimisha J, Kusum SV. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4:27–31.

Fred L, Holger MR. Novel drug delivery systems tailored for improved administration of glucocorticoids. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:1836.

Shweta P, Niraj G, Manish J. Carrier-mediated target drug delivery systems: a novel approach-(An overview). Int J Pharm Pract 2013;4:701-9.

Zhang L, Radovicâ€Moreno AF, Alexis F, Gu FX, Basto PA, Bagalkot V, et al. Coâ€delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs from nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates. Chem Med Chem 2007;2:1268-71.

Zhang G, Chan W, Langer F. Nanoparticles in medicine: therapeutic applications and developments. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008;5:761-9.

Sarika P, Ashutosh B, Deepak S. Sustained release matrix technology and recent advance in the matrix drug delivery system: a review. Int J Drug Res Technol 2017;3:8.

Dan G, Guoxin X, Jianbin Luo. Mechanical properties of nanoparticles: basics and applications. J Phys D 2013;47:13.

Wengang Li, Xiuhua Z, Xiaoli S, Yuangang Zu, Ying L, Yunlong GE. Evaluation of antioxidant ability in vitro and bioavailability of trans-cinnamic acid nanoparticle by liquid antisolvent precipitate. J Nanomater 2016;29:16.

Akanksha Raj, Prasanna Shah, Namita Agrawa. Dose-dependent effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on fertility and survival of Drosophila: an in vivo study. J Nanomater 2017;5:124-31.

Kiranmai M. Biological and non-biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: scope for current pharmaceutical research. Indian J Pharm Sci 2017;79:501-12.

Pantidos N, Horsfall LE. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi and plants. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 2014;5:2157-79.

Priyanka S, Yu-Jin K, Dabing Z, Deok-Chun Y. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles from plants and microorganisms. Trends Biotechnol 2016;34:588-99.

Raksha G, Rakesh Kumar T, Anil Kumar M, Krishna C, Narendra Kumar J. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone peptide tethered nanoparticulate system for the enhanced antitumoral efficacy of paclitaxel. Nanomed 2016;7:588-99.

Khdair A, Hamad I, Alkhatib H, Bustanji Y, Mohammad M, Tayem R, et al. Modified-chitosan nanoparticles: Novel drug delivery systems improve oral bioavailability of doxorubicin. Eur J Pharm Sci 2016;93:38-44.

Patricia F, Kalle Lintinen AK, Ville H, Zehua L, Tomas BR, Antti R, et al. In vitro evaluation of biodegradable lignin-based nanoparticles for drug delivery and enhanced antiproliferation effect in cancer cells. Biomat 2017;121:97-108.

Jagminas A. Methionine-mediated synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles and functionalization with gold quantum dots for theranostic applications. J Nanotechnol 2017;8:1734-41.

Chen C, Sun W, Wang X, Wang Y, Wang P. pH-responsive nanoreservoirs based on hyaluronic acid end-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;17:33559-66.

Villeret B, Dieu A, Straube M, Solhonne B, Miklavc P, Hamadi S, et al. Silver nanoparticles impair retinoic acid-inducible gene i mediated mitochondrial anti-viral immunity by blocking the autophagic flux in lung epithelial cells. ACS Nano 2018;2:1-49.

Lisa S, Tejaswi V, Fatemeh M, Sherry YW, Anil KS, Susan H. Advances and challenges of liposome assisted drug delivery. Front Pharmacol 2015;6:286-92.

Yoshihiro T, Kaoru N, Yurina I, Fumie H. Enhancement of skin penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds by ph-sensitive liposomes. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;18:249-57.

Maria C, Nikolaos N, Natassa P. The significance of drug-to-lipid ratio to the development of optimized liposomal formulation. J Liposome Res 2017;18:1-36.

Ravi TPU, AbulKalam AM. Sustained release of green tea polyphenols from liposomal nanoparticles; release kinetics and mathematical modelling. Iranian J Biotech 2017;15:1322-41.

Durgavati Y, Kumar S, Deepak P, Ranu Kumari D. Liposomes for drug delivery. J Biotechnol Biomater 2017;7:4.

Hadis D, Ali E, Mohammad K, Samira A, Abolfazl A. Application of liposomes in medicine and drug delivery. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016;44:381-91.

Maussang D, Rip J, Kregten J, Den Heuvel A, Der Pol S, Der Boom B, et al. Glutathione conjugation dose-dependently increases brain-specific liposomal drug delivery in vitro and in vivo. Drug Discovery Today: Technol 2016;20:59-69.

Xiao Y, Liu Y, Yang S, Zhang B, Wang T, Jiang D, et al. Sorafenib and gadolinium co-loaded liposomes for drug delivery and MRI-guided HCC treatment. Colloids Surf 2016;141:83-92.

Sharma R, Mody N, Kushwah V, Jain S, Vyas SP. C-type lectin receptor(s)-targeted nanoliposomes: an intelligent approach for effective cancer immunotherapy. Nanomed 2017;16:1945-59.

Abraham MK, Peter K, Michel T, Wendel HP, Krajewski S, Wang X. Nanoliposomes for safe and efficient therapeutic mRNA delivery: a step toward nanotheranostics in inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. Nanotheranostics 2017;2:154-65.

Ju RJ, Cheng L, Peng XM, Wang T, Li CQ, Song XL, et al. Octreotide-modified liposomes containing daunorubicin and dihydroartemisinin for treatment of invasive breast cancer. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018;30:1-13.

Tatode A, Patil A, Umekar M. Application of response surface methodology in the optimization of paclitaxel liposomes prepared by thin film hydration technique. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:62-9.

Hasani F, Pezeshki A, Hamishehkar H. Effect of surfactant and oil type on size droplets of betacarotene-bearing nanoemulsions. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2015;4:146-55.

Wulff-Perez MA, Torcello-Gomez MJ, Galvez-Ruiz Martin-Rodriguez. Stability of emulsions for parenteral feeding: Preparation and characterization of o/w nanoemulsions with natural oils and Pluronic f68 as a surfactant. Food Hydrocoll 2009;23:1096-102.

Lovelyn C, Anthony AA. Nanoemulsion, mechanical stress current state of nanoemulsions in drug delivery. J Biomater Nanobiotechnol 2011;2:626-39.

Parthasarathi S, Muthukumar SP, Anandharamakrishnan C. The influence of droplet size on the stability, in vivo digestion, and oral bioavailability of vitamin E emulsions. Food Funct 2016;7:2294-302.

Zheng Y, Ouyang WQ, Wei YP, Syed SF, Hao CS, Wang BZ, et al. Effects of carbopol® 934 proportion on nanoemulsion gel for topical and transdermal drug delivery: a skin permeation study. Int J Nanomed 2016;11:5971-87.

Mou D, Chen H, Du D, Mao C, Wan J, Xu H, et al. Hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system for topical delivery of lipophilic drugs. Int J Pharm 2008;353:270-6.

Primo FL, Michieleto L, Rodrigues MA, Macaroff PP, Morais PC, Lacava ZG, et al. Magnetic nanoemulsions as drug delivery system for Foscan®: Skin permeation and retention in vitro assays for topical application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin cancer. J Magn Magn Mater 2007;311:354-7.

Mahato R. Nanoemulsion as targeted drug delivery system for cancer therapeutics. J Pharm Sci Pharmacol 2017;3:83-97.

Jasmina H, Dzana O, Alisa E, Edina V, Ognjenka R. Preparation of nanoemulsions by high-energy and low-energy emulsification methods. In CMBEBIH Springer; 2017. p. 317-22.

Wu L, Bi Y, Wu H. Formulation optimization and the absorption mechanisms of nanoemulsion in improving baicalin oral exposure. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017;12:1-32.

Gueutin C, Frebourg G, Burucoa C, Faivre V. Erythromycin encapsulation in nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for treatment of helicobacter pylori infection: protection and synergy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017;493:146-51.

Jain N, Gupta BP, Thakur N, Jain R, Banweer J, Jain DK, et al. Phytosome: a novel drug delivery system for herbal medicine. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2010;2:224-8.

Khan J, Alexander A, Saraf S, Saraf S. Recent advances and future prospects of phyto-phospholipid complexation technique for improving pharmacokinetic profile of plant actives. J Controlled Release 2013;68:50-60.

Nanavati B. Phytosome: a novel approach to enhance the bioavailability of phytoconstituent. Asian J Pharm 2017;11:S453-S461.

Pawar HA, Bhangale BD. Phytosome as a novel biomedicine: a microencapsulated drug delivery system. J Bioanal Biomed 2017;7:6-12.

Chetan K, Hatware K. Phytosomes-novel drug delivery system. Ind J Drugs 2017;5:16-36.

Mazumder A, Dwivedi A, Fox LT, Brummer A, Preez JL, Gerber M, et al. In vitro skin permeation of sinigrin from its phytosomecomplex. J Pharm Pharmacol 2016;68:1577-83.

Abdelkader H, Longman MR, Alany RG, Pierscionek B. Phytosome-hyaluronic acid systems for ocular delivery of L-carnosin. Int J Nanomed 2016;11:2815-27.

Damle M, Mallya R. Development and evaluation of a novel delivery system containing phytophospholipid complex for skin aging. AAPS PharmSciTech 2016;17:607-17.

Das MK, Kalita B. Design and evaluation of phyto-phospholipid complexes (Phytosomes) of rutin for transdermal application. J Appl Pharma Sci 2014;4:51-7.

May S, Freag Yosra SR, Elnaggar Ossama Y, Abdallah. Lyophilized phytosomal nanocarriers as platforms for enhanced diosmin delivery: optimization and ex vivo permeation. Int J Nanomed 2013;8:2385-97.

Telange DR, Patil AT, Pethe AM, Fegade H, Anand S, Dave VS. Formulation and characterization of an apigenin-phospholipid phytosome (APLC) for improved solubility, in vivo bioavailability, and antioxidant potential. Eur J Pharm Sci 2016;108:1-14.

Pathan IB, Jaware BP, Shelke S, Ambekar W. Curcumin loaded ethosomes for transdermal application: formulation, optimization, in vitro and in vivo study. J Drug Delivery Sci Technol 2018;44:49-57.

Khan NR, Wong TW. 5-Fluorouracil ethosomes–skin deposition and melanoma permeation synergism with microwave. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018;14:1-10.

Zhang Y, Ng W, Hu J, Mussa SS, Ge Y, Xu H. Formulation and in vitro stability evaluation of ethosomal carbomer hydrogel for transdermal vaccine delivery. Colloids Surf B 2018;163:184-91.

Lembo D, Donalisio M, Civra A, Argenziano M, Cavalli R. Nanomedicine formulations for the delivery of antiviral drugs: A promising solution for the treatment of viral infections. Expert opinion on drug delivery. Int J Pharm 2018;15:93-114.

Sharma G, Goyal H, Thakur K, Raza K, Katare OP. Novel elastic membrane vesicles (EMVs) and ethosomes-mediated effective topical delivery of aceclofenac: a new therapeutic approach for pain and inflammation. Drug Delivery 2016;23:3135-45.

Shelke S, Shahi S, Jalalpure S, Dhamecha D. Poloxamer 407-based intranasal thermoreversible gel of zolmitriptan-loaded nanoethosomes: formulation, optimization, evaluation and permeation studies. J Liposome Res 2016;26:313-23.

Sujatha S, Sowmya G, Chaitanya M, Reddy VK, Monica M, Kumar KK, et al. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of finasteride ethosomes. Int J Drug Delivery 2016;8:1-11.

Jain S, Patel N, Madan P, Lin S. Formulation and rheological evaluation of ethosome-loaded carbopol hydrogel for transdermal application. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2015;42:1315-24.

Ahmed TA, Khalid M, Aljaeid BM, Fahmy UA, Abd-Allah FI. Transdermal glimepiride delivery system based on optimized ethosomalnano-vesicles: preparation, characterization, in vitro, ex vivo and clinical evaluation. Int J Pharm 2016;2:245-54.

Shaik MR, Sadhana C, Pragathi S, Pranithanjali KR, Pavani B, Reddy TP. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of aceclofenac ethosomes. Indo Am J Pharm 2016;2:35-41.

Milind P, Swati S. Development and optimization of rizatriptan benzoate ethosomes. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:83-90.

Owuor JJ, Oloo F, Ouma D, Omwoyo WN, Gathirwa JW. Optimization and characterization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for liver schinonticide targeting by freeze drying. MOJ Drug Des Delivery Ther 2017;4:21-9.

Bhupinder K, Newton MJ. Acyclovir solid lipid nanoparticles for skin drug delivery: fabrication, characterization and in vitro study. Recent Pat Drug Delivery 2017;11:132-46.

Jannin V, Blas L, Chevrier S, Miolane C, Demarne F, Spitzer D. Evaluation of the digestibility of solid lipid nanoparticles of glyceryl dibehenate produced by two techniques: ultrasonication and spray-flash evaporation. Eur J Pharm Sci 2018;111:91-5.

Cirri M, Mennini N, Maestrelli F, Mura P, Ghelardini C, Mannelli LD. Development and in vivo evaluation of an innovative Hydrochlorothiazide-in cyclodextrins-in solid lipid nanoparticles†formulation with sustained release and enhanced oral bioavailability for potential hypertension treatment in pediatrics. Int J Pharm 2017;521:73-83.

Kotmakçı M, Akbaba H, Erel G, Ertan G, Kantarcı G. Improved method for solid lipid nanoparticle preparation based on hot microemulsions: preparation, characterization, cytotoxicity, and hemocompatibility evaluation. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2017;18:1355-65.

Thakkar A, Chenreddy S, Thio A, Khamas W, Wang J, Prabhu S. Preclinical systemic toxicity evaluation of chitosan-solid lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated aspirin and curcumin in combination with free sulforaphane in BALB/c mice. Int J Nanomed 2016;11:3265-76.

Chantaburanan T, Teeranachaideekul V, Chantasart D, Jintapattanakit A, Junyaprasert VB. Effect of binary solid lipid matrix of wax and triglyceride on lipid crystallinity, drug-lipid interaction and drug release of ibuprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for dermal delivery. J Colloid Interface Sci 2017;504:247-56.

Wang T, Hu Q, Zhou M, Xue J, Luo Y. Preparation of ultra-fine powders from polysaccharide-coated solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers by innovative nanospray drying technology. Int J Pharm 2016;511:219-22.

Mosallaei N, Mahmoudi A, Ghandehari H, Yellepeddi VK, Jaafari MR, Malaekeh-Nikouei B. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38): preparation, characterization, in vitro, and in vivo evaluations. Eur J Pharm Sci 2016;104:42-50.

Chetoni P, Burgalassi S, Monti D, Tampucci S, Tullio V, Cuffini AM, et al. Solid lipid nanoparticles as a promising tool for intraocular tobramycin delivery: Pharmacokinetic studies on rabbits. Eur J Pharma Biopharm 2016;109:214-23.

Surekha R, Sumathi T. An efficient encapsulation of thymoquinone using solid lipid nanoparticle for brain-targeted drug delivery: physicochemical characterization, pharmaco-kinetics and biodistribution studies. Indian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;8:1616-24.



How to Cite

Sivapriya, V., Ponnarmadha, S., Azeezand, N. A., & Sudarshanadeepa, V. (2018). NOVEL NANOCARRIERS FOR ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL FORMULATIONS. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(4), 26–30.



Review Article(s)