QUANTITATIVE ANALYSISOF STEVIOSIDE AND REBAUDIOSIDE A IN STEVIAREBAUDIANA LEAVES USING INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTIVARIATE CALIBRATION
Keywords:FTIR spectroscopy, Partial least square regression, Stevia rebaudiana, Stevioside, Rebaudioside A
Objective: The objective of this research was to develop Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis of partial least square (PLS) regression for quantitative analysis of stevioside and rebaudioside A in S. rebaudiana leaves extract.
Methods: Stevia rebaudiana leaves with various ages were obtained from several high hills in Central Java, Indonesia. The extract samples were scanned using FTIR spectrophotometer in wavenumbers region of 4000â€“650 cm-1. PLS calibration model was established by plotting the actual value of stevioside and rebaudioside A as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and FTIR predicted value. The performance of PLS regression was evaluated using coefficient determination (R2), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP).
Results: PLS regression for stevioside determination was successfully established using the combined wavenumber region of 671â€“1450 and 3279-3301 cm-1. PLS regression revealed R2of 0.9952with RMSEC value of0.84%. Meanwhile, rebaudioside A was determined at wavenumber region of 921â€“1508 cm-1using normal spectra. PLS model revealed R2 and RMSEC of 0.9911 and 0.70%, respectively.
Conclusion: FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis of PLS regression could be used as an alternative method for quantitative analysis ofstevioside and rebaudioside A in S. rebaudiana leaves.
Bergs D, Burghoff B, Joehnck M, Martin G, Schembecker G. Fast and isocratic HPLC-method for steviol glycosides analysis from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. J Fur Verbraucherschutz Lebens 2012;7:147â€“54.
Lemus Mondaca R, Vega Galvez A, Zura Bravo L, Ah-Hen K. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, source of a high-potency natural sweetener: a comprehensive review on the biochemical, nutritional and functional aspects. Food Chem 2012;132:1121â€“32.
Gregersen S, Jeppesen PB, Holst JJ, Hermansen K. Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects. Metabolism 2004;53:73â€“6.
Shivanna N, Naika M, Khanum F, Kaul VK. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana. J Diabetes Complications 2013;27:103â€“13.
GaweÅ‚ BÄ™ben K, Bujak T, NizioÅ‚ Åukaszewska Z, Antosiewicz B, Jakubczyk A, KaraÅ› M, et al. Stevia rebaudiana bert. leaf extracts as a multifunctional source of natural antioxidants. Molecules 2015;20:5468â€“86.
Kim IS, Yang M, Lee OH, Kang SN. The antioxidant activity and the bioactive compound content of Stevia rebaudiana water extracts. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2011;44:1328â€“32.
Ferri LAF, Alves-Do-Prado W, Yamada SS, Gazola S, Batista MR, Bazotte RB. Investigation of the antihypertensive effect of oral crude stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension. Phytother Res 2006;20:732â€“6.
Wang LS, Shi Z, Shi BM, Shan AS. Effects of dietary stevioside/rebaudioside A on the growth performance and diarrhea incidence of weaned piglets. Animal Feed Sci Technol 2014;87:104â€“9.
Takasaki M, Konoshima T, Kozuka M, Tokuda H, Takayasu J. Cancer preventive agents. Part 8: chemopreventive effects of stevioside and related compounds. Bioorganic Med Chem 2009;17:600â€“5.
Liu J, Li J, Tang J. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of total carbohydrates from stevia rebaudiana bertoni and identification of extracts. Food Bio Processing 2010;88:215â€“21.
Well C, Frank O, Hofmann T. Quantitation of sweet steviol glycosides by means of a HILIC-MS/MS-SIDA approach. J Food Agric Chem 2013;61:11312â€“20.
Gardana C, Scaglianti M, Simonetti P. Evaluation of steviol and its glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and commercial sweetener by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2010;1217:1463â€“70.
Cacciola F, Delmonte P, Jaworska K, Dugo P, Mondello L, Rader JI. Employing Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography as the second dimension in a comprehensive two-dimensional system for analysis of Stevia rebaudiana extracts. J Chromatogr A 2011;1218:2012â€“8.
Jaworska K, Krynitsky AJ, Rader JI. Simultaneous analysis of steviol and steviol glycosides by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection on a mixed-mode column: application to stevia plant material and stevia-containing dietary supplements. J AOAC Int 2012;95:1588â€“96.
Lorenzo C, Serrano Diaz J, Plaza M, Quintanilla C, Alonso GL. Fast methodology of analysing major steviol glycosides from stevia rebaudiana leaves. Food Chem 2014;157:518â€“23.
Chester K, Tamboli ET, Singh M, Ahmad S. Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent. J Pharm Bioalleid Sci 2012;4:276â€“81.
Jaitak V, Gupta AP, Kaul VK, Ahuja PS. Validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2008;47:790â€“4.
Hearn LK, Subedi PP. Determining levels of steviol glycosides in the leaves of stevia rebaudiana by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J Food Compos Anal 2009;22:165â€“8.
Li H, He J, Li F, Zhang Z, Li R. Application of NIR and MIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of antioxidant activity of radix scutellariae from different geographical regions. Phytochem Anal 2016;27:73â€“80.
Rohman A, Sudjadi, Ramadhani D, Nugroho A. Analysis of curcumin in curcuma longa and curcuma xanthorriza using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Res J Med Plants 2015;9:179â€“86.
Rohman A, Setyaningrum DL, Riyanto S. FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial Least Square for analysis of red fruit oil in ternary mixture system. Int J Spectros 2014;2014:e785914. Doi:10.1155/2014/785914.
Kamble VV, Gaikwad NB. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopic studies in embelia ribes Burm. F.: a vulnerable medicinal plant. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:41-7.
Nugrahani I, Dillen N. Rapid assay development of diclofenac sodium coated tablet assay using FTIR compared to HPLC method. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:43-50
Nugrahani I, Khalida FN. Green method for acetaminophen and ibuprofen simultaneous assay in the combination tablet using FTIR. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:77-83.
Martono Y, Riyanto S, Rohman A, Martono S. Effect of mobile phase composition, organic modifier, and flow rate on selectivity and retention of stevioside and rebaudioside a on isocratic RP-HPLC analysis. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:397-402.
Pol J, Hohnova B, Hyotylainen T. Characterisation of stevia rebaudiana by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2007;1150:85â€“92.
Ceunen S, Geuns JMC. Spatio-temporal variation of the diterpene steviol in Stevia rebaudiana grown under different photoperiods. Phytochem 2013;89:32â€“8.
Chranioti C, Chanioti S, Tzia C. Comparison of spray, freeze and oven drying as a means of reducing bitter aftertaste of steviol glycosides (derived from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant)â€“evaluation of the final products. Food Chem 2016;190:1151â€“8.