• Shan Mohanan Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India.
  • Nabeela Rasheed Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India.
  • Bimal Raj K. S. Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi, Kerala, India.



Paronychia, Gel, Topical formulation, Carbopol, Xanthan gum, Ketoconazole, Neomycin, Diclofenac, Antibacterial study, Drug delivery


Objective: The aim of the study was to design and develop a gel based drug delivery system containing combinational drugs (ketoconazole, neomycin sulphate and diclofenac) for the effective treatment of Paronychia.

Methods: The drugs used are ketoconazole, neomycin sulphate and diclofenac. The first two drugs provide an antifungal and antibacterial action and the last drug with a pain relieving effect. Two formulations of gels F1 and F2 were prepared using polymers like carbopol 934 and xanthan gum respectively. The amounts of drugs and other ingredients were kept as constant in both formulations. The prepared formulations were then evaluated by visual examination, pH, drug content, spredability, extrudability, drug release study, in vitro antibacterial study, in vitro antifungal study, stability studies and in vivo antibacterial study.

Results: The obtained results were analyzed and compared. All the test results were within the accepted limit. The physicochemical properties of the gels were assessed and it was found that the two formulations have enough gel consistency with good spreadability and extrudability. The drug content and drug release studies of the prepared gels were done and the results showed that the all the three drugs were properly loaded into the gel system, with good drug release profile. The antimicrobial activities of the formulated gels were proved by both in vitro antifungal and antibacterial studies. The in vivo antibacterial studies revealed a significant reduction in bacterial count in wistar rats treated with prepared gel when compared with standard drug solution. From among all the developed formulations, F1 formulation with carbopol 934 has got a slight superior property when compared with formulation F2 xanthan gum as gelling agent.

Conclusion: On the basis of the evaluation studies it was concluded that the drugs (ketoconazole, neomycin sulphate and diclofenac) were successfully incorporated into the different topical gel preparations with good physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity. Therefore, it was concluded that our formulae could be very promising topical alternative for the treatment of Paronychia.


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How to Cite

Mohanan, S., Rasheed, N., & Raj K. S., B. (2018). FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL GELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PARONYCHIA. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(6), 161–167.



Original Article(s)