• Rajeswari Anburaj Department of Microbiology, M. I.E. T Arts and Science College, Trichy
  • VINOTH JOTHIPRAKASAM CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India



Bioreduction, Biofunctionalized, Optimization, Gymnemagenin


Objective: The idea of green chemistry has gained immense fame due to replace chemical products and improves technologies to eradicate substances that are harmful to the environment. In this paper, a rapid cost-efficient method was employed using herbal extract Gymnema sylvestrae because of their biological constituents present in the sample.

Methods: Phytosynthesis of AgNPs were optimized under different reaction conditions using pH, temperature, incubated at various concentrations. Analyses of particles were revealed using UV-Vis, FTIR spectrum, morphology was observed in scanning electron microscope, particle analysis was done using Diffraction Light Scattering and bioactive constituents present in plant sample was analysed by High-performance liquid chromatography. Bioefficacy of synthesised AgNPs was assessed by means of microbicidal assay against various bacteria and fungi.

Results: UV and FTIR analysis reveals the presence of plant extract responsible for stabilization and efficient reduction. Peptides to proteins, polyphenols, and many other secondary metabolites involved in the bioreduction were identified. SEM micrograph reveals the nature, size and distribution of the sample. HPLC chromatogram indicated the presence of gymnemagenin responsible for their biological assays. Broad spectrum of microbicidal activity have been reported in 400 µl of biosynthesized AgNPs against Bacillus sp. (24.5 mm), and S. epidermis (22.3 mm).

Conclusion: Therefore G. sylvestrae synthesized silver nanoparticles were stable and acts as a reducing and capping agent detecting the presence of biomolecules. Biosynthesised AgNPs showing excellent antimicrobial activity and future prospects of this study indicates that these nanoparticles can be applied in drug delivery.


Download data is not yet available.


Nel AE, Madler L, Velegol D, Xia T, Hoek EMV, Somasundaran P, et al. Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano–bio interface. Nat Mater 2009;8:543–57.

Sharma NC, Sahi SV, Nath S, Parsons JG, Gardea Torresde JL, Pal T. Synthesis of plant-mediated gold nanoparticles and catalytic role of biomatrix-embedded nanomaterials. Environ Sci Technol 2007;41:5137–42.

Hamed M, Givianrad M, Moradi A. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the marine sponge. Orient J Chem 2015;31:1961–7.

Kumari A, Yadav SK, Yadav SC. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery systems. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2010;75:1–18.

Rauwel P, Kunal S, Ferdov S, Rauwel E. A review on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their morphologies studied via TEM. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2015;9:682749.

Kumar B, Smita K, Cumbal L, Debut A. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) leaf extracts. Saudi J Biol Sci 2014b;21:605–9.

Mehmood A, Murtaza G, Bhatti TM, Raffi M, Kausar R. Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles synthesized by a green method using bark extract of Melia azedarach L. J Pharm Innovare 2014;9:238–45.

Kumar B, Angulo Y, Smita K, Cumbal L, Debut A. Capuli cherry-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles under white solar and blue LED light. Particuology 2016;24:123-8.

Kumar B, Smita K, Cumbal L, Angulo Y. Fabrication of silver nanoplates using Nephelium lappaceum (Rambutan) peel: a sustainable approach. J Mol Liq 2015b;211:476–80.

Kumar B, Smita K, Cumbal L, Debut A. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil for one-pot synthesis of silver nanocatalyst: an ecofriendly approach. Ind Crops Prod 2014c;58:238–43.

Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Zamanian A, Sangpour P, Shabanzadeh P, Abdollahi Y, et al. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Curcuma longa tuber powder. Int J Nanomed 2012;7:5603–10.

Rajeshkumar S. Anticancer activity of eco-friendly gold nanoparticles against lung and liver cancer cells. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2016;14:195–202.

Khan M, Khan ST, Khan M, Adil SF, Musarrat J, Al-Khedhairy AA, et al. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreduction. Int J Nanomed 2014;9:3551–65.

Kumar PPN, Pammi SVN, Kollu P, Satyanarayana KVV, Shameem U. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Boerhavia diffusa plant extract and their antibacterial activity. Ind Crops Prod 2014;52:562–6.

Jeyaraj M, Sathishkumar G, Sivanandhan G, Mubarak Ali D, Rajesh M, Arun R, et al. Biogenic silver nanoparticles for cancer treatment: an experimental report. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013;106:86–92.

Balavigneswaran CK, Sujin Jeba Kumar T, Moses Packiaraj R, Prakash S. Rapid detection of Cr(VI) by AgNPs probe produced by Anacardium occidentale fresh leaf extracts. Appl Nanosci 2014;4:367–78.

Kumar P, Govindarajua M, Senthamilselvi S, Premkumar K. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesised from Ulva lactuca. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013;103:658–61.

Mohapatra B, Kuriakose S, Mohapatra S. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract. J Alloys Comp 2015;637:119–26.

Karadeniz F, Burdurulu HS, Koca N, Soyer Y. Antioxidant activity of selected fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. Turk J Agric Forest 2005;29:297–303.

Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. 36th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2006. p. 252.

Kumaran A, Karunakaran JR. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2007;40:344–52.

Ali Ahmed AB, Rao AS, Rao MV. In vitro production of gymnemic acid from Gymnema sylvestrae (Retz) R. Br. ex roemer and schultes through callus culture under abiotic stress conditions. Methods Mol Biol 2009;547:93–105.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 1st ed. Chapman and Hall Ltd.; 1973. p. 279.

Kumar V, Yadav SC, Yadav SK. Syzygium cumini leaf and seed extract mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 2010;85:1301–9.

NCCLS. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing-wayne. 10th ed. NCCLS; 2010. p. M2-A8.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries, part 2. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; 2000. p. 434.

Stuart BH. Polymer analysis. United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons; 2002.

Chakrapani P, Venkatesh K, Chandra Sekhar SB, Arun JB, Prem K, Amareshwari P, et al. Phytochemical, pharmacological importance of Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth) an aromatic medicinal plant. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013;21:7–15.

Priya K, Krishnakumari S. Phytochemical analysis of Achyranthes aspera and its activity on sesame oil induced lipid peroxidation. Anc Sci Life 2007;27:6–10.

Netala VR, Ghosh SB, Bobbu PL, Anitha D, Vijaya T. Triterpenoid saponins: a review on biosynthesis, applications and mechanism of their action. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;7:24–8.

Komes D, Belscak Cvitanovic A, Horzic D, Rusak G, Likic S, Berendika M. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some traditionally used medicinal plants affected by the extraction time and hydrolysis. Phytochem Anal 2011;22:172–80.

Quideau S, Deffieux D, Douat Casassus C, Pouysegu L. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis. Angew Chem Int Ed 2011;50:586–621.

Rice Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radical Res 1995;22:375–83.

Tavakoli F, Salavati Niasari M, Mohandes F. Green synthesis and characterization of graphene nanosheets. Mater Res Bull 2015;63:51–7.

Iravani S, Zolfaghari B. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract. BioMed Res Int 2013:639725.

Suna Q, Cai X, Li J, Zheng M, Chenb Z, Yu CP. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and evaluation of their stability and antibacterial activity. Colloid Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2014;444:226–31.

Dinesh S, Karthikeyan S, Arumugam P. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. Arch Appl Sci Res 2012;4:178–87.

Sable N, Gaikwad S, Bonde S, Gade A, Rai M. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrila Verticilata. Nus Biosci 2012;4:45–9.

Sadeghi B, Gholamhoseinpoor F. A study on the stability and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) extract at room temperature. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2015;134:310–5.

Firdhouse MJ, Lalitha P, Sripathi SK. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf ethanol extract of Pisonia grandis (R. Br). Der Pharm Chem 2012;4:2320–6.

Awwad AM, Salem NM, Abdeen AO. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Loquat leaf extract and its antibacterial activity. Adv Mater Lett 2013;4:338–42.

Veshara M, Izel B, Suresh BNK, Joyce NM. Enhancing antidiabetic and antimicrobial performance of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum (L.) using silver nanoparticles. Saudi J Biol Sci 2017;24:1294-305.

Raju VSR, Kannababu S, Subba Raju G. Standardization of Gymnema sylvestrae R. Br. by high-performance thin layer chromatography-an improved method. Phytochem Anal 2006;17:192–6.

Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. An antibiotic assay by the agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biol Med Exp 1990;15:113–5.

Ghosh A, Das BK, Roy A, Mandal B, Chanda G. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts. J Nat Med 2008;62:259–62.

Paz EA, Cerdeiras MP, Fernandez J, Ferreira F, Moya P, Soubes M, et al. screening of uruguayan medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;45:67–70.

Segarajah A, Gunasingam M, Kalamathy M. Antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestrae (R. Br.). Med Plants Int J Phytomed Related Ind 2011;3:139–43.

Vidhu VK, Philip D. Spectroscopic, microscopic and catalytic properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Saraca indica flower. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014;117:102–8.

Ganaie SU, Tasneem A, Anuradha J, Abbasi SA. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the amphibious weed ipomoea and their application in pollution control. J King Saud Univ Sci 2014;26:222–9.

Ghosh S, Patil S, Ahire M, Kitture R, Kale S, Pardesi K, et al. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract and evaluation of its synergistic potential in combination with antimicrobial agents. Int J Nanomed 2012;7:483–96.

El Sheekh MM, El Kassas HY. Algal production of nanosilver and gold: their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities: a review. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2016;14:299–310.

Chinnappan S, Kandasamy S, Muthusamy G, Balakrishnan S, Arumugam S, Murugesan S, et al. Acorus calamus rhizome extract mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity against human pathogens. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2015;13:93–9.

Mohammad MA, Abbas Y, Mehdi HM, Somayeh B. Effects of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles on invitro establishment of G × N15 (hybrid of almond × peach) rootstock. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2014;12:103–10.

Ashok kumar S, Ravi S, Kathiravan V, Velmurugan S. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2015;134:34–9.

Gopal S, Poosali HG, Dhanasegaran K, Durai P, Devadoss D, Nagaiya R, et al. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014;127:61–6.

Geoprincy G, Gandhi NN, Renganathan S. Novel antibacterial effects of alumina nanoparticles on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in comparison with antibiotics. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:544–8.

Zamani M, Prabhakaran MP, Ramakrishna S. Advances in drug delivery via electrospun and electrosprayed nanomaterials. Int J Nanomed 2013;8:2997–3017.

Tamboli DP, Lee DS. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesised silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. J Hazard Mater 2013;260:878–84.

Muthuraman P, Doo HK. ZnO nanoparticles augment ALT, AST, ALP and LDH expressions in C2C12 cells. Saudi J Biol Sci 2015;2:679–84.

Gangadharan D, Harshvardan K, Gnanasekar G, Dixit D, Popat KM, Anand PS. Polymeric microspheres containing silver nanoparticles as a bactericidal agent for water disinfection. Water Res 2010;44:5481–7.

Kokura S, Handa O, Takagi T, Ishikawa T, Naito Y, Yoshikawa T. Silver nanoparticles as a safe preservative for use in cosmetics. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 2010;6:570–4.

Tian J, Wong KK, Ho CM, Lok CN, Yu WY, Che CM, et al. Topical delivery of silver nanoparticles promotes wound healing. Chem Med Chem 2007;2:129–36.

Dastjerdi R, Montazer M. A review on the application of inorganic nanostructured materials in the modification of textiles: focus on anti-microbial properties. Colloids Surf B 2010;79:5–18.

Ravi Chandrika K, Kiranmayi P, Ravikumar RVSSN. Role of zinc oxide nanoparticles enhancing the antibacterial activity of antibiotics. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;4:97–9.

Arunachalam KD, Annamalai SK, Hari S. One-step green synthesis and characterization of leaf extract-mediated biocompatible silver and gold nanoparticles from Memecylon umbellatum. Int J Nanomed 2013;8:307-15.

Mittal AK, Tripathy D, Choudhary A, Aili PK, Chatterjee A, Singh IP, et al. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens wall. ex-hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as an anticancer and antimicrobial agent. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2015;53:120–7.



How to Cite




Original Article(s)