• Manyasree D. Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, 3Department of Toxicology/Global QC (BPANS), Shire Pharmaceuticals, Lexingtn, MA, USA.
  • Kiranmayi P. Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, 3Department of Toxicology/Global QC (BPANS), Shire Pharmaceuticals, Lexingtn, MA, USA.
  • Venkata R Kolli Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, 3Department of Toxicology/Global QC (BPANS), Shire Pharmaceuticals, Lexingtn, MA, USA.



ZnO nanoparticles, XRD, FTIR, UV-VISIBLE spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, MIC


Objective: In the present study the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was investigated against gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans) organisms.

Methods: The synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was carried out by co-precipitation method using zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide as precursors. These nanoparticles were characterized by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation), UV-Visible spectroscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis). As well as antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the nanoparticles were carried out by agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method respectively against gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans) bacteria.

Results: The average crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles was found to be 35 nm by X-ray diffraction. The vibration bands at 450 and 603 cm-1 which were assigned for ZnO stretching vibration were observed in FTIR spectrum. The optical absorption band at 383 nm was obtained from UV-Visible spectrum. Spherical shape morphology was observed in SEM studies. The antibacterial assay clearly expressed that E. coli showed a maximum zone of inhibition (32±0.20 mm) followed by Proteus vulgaris (30±0.45 nm) at 50 mg/ml concentration of ZnO nanoparticles.

Conclusion: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have exhibited good antibacterial activity with gram negative bacteria when compared to gram positive bacteria.


Download data is not yet available.


Choi O, Yu CP, Esteban Fernández G, Hu Z. Interactions of nanosilver with escherichia coli cells in planktonic and biofilm cultures. Water Res 2010;44:6095–103.

Wilczynski M. Antimicrobial porcelain enamels. Cerr Eng Sci Proceedings 2000;21:81-3.

Nicole J, Binata R, Koodali T, Ranjit C. Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions on a broad spectrum of microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008;279:71-6.

Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ. Metal oxide nanoparticles as bactericidal agents. Langmuir 2002;18:6679–86.

Sawai J, Kawada E, Kanou F, Igarashi H, Hashimoto A, Kokugan T, et al. Detection of active oxygen generated from ceramic powders having antibacterial activity. J Chem Eng Japan 1996;29:627–33.

Brigger I, Dubernet C, Couvreur P. Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2002;54:631-51.

Jia You, Yanyan Zhang, Zhiqiang Hu. Bacteria and bacteriaophage inactivation by silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B 2011;85:161-7.

Ravichandrika K, Kiranmayi P, Ravi Kumar RVSSN. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:336-8.

Manyasree D, Kiranmayi P. ZnO nanoparticles: role in enhancing antibacterial activity of various antibiotics against Escherichia coli. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2017;9:399-402.

Kundu A, Anand S, Verma HCA. Citrate process to synthesize nanocrystalline zinc ferrite from 7 to 23 nm crystallite size. Powder Technol 2003a;132:131-6.

Raeisi Shahraki R, Ebrahimi M. Synthesize of superparamagnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticles at room temperature. J Neurosurg 2013;2:413-6.

Hamdeh HH, Ho JC, Oliver SA, Willey RJJ, Oliveri G, Busca G. Magnetic properties of partially-inverted zinc ferrite aerogel powders. J Appl Phys 1997;81:1851-8.

Toledo-Antonio JA, Nava N, Martinez M, Bokhimi X. Correlation between the magnetism of non-stoichiometric zinc ferrites and their catalytic activity for oxidative dehydrogenation of 1-butene. Appl Catal A 2002;234:137-44.

Bid S, Pradhan SK. Preparation of zinc ferrite by high energy ball-milling and microstructure characterization by rietveld's analysis. Mater Chem Phys 2003;82:27-37.

Ehrhardt H, Campbel SJ, Hofmann M. Magnetism of the nanostructured spinel zinc ferrite. Scr Mater 2003;48:1141-6.

Shenoya SD, Joy PA, Anantharaman MR. Effect of mechanical milling on the structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of co-precipitated ultrafine zinc ferrite. J Magn Magn Mater 2004;269:217-26.

Kundu A, Upadhyay C, Verma HC. Magnetic properties of a partially inverted zinc ferrite synthesized by a new co-precipitation technique using urea. Phys Lett 2003b;311:410-5.

Tanaka K, Makita M, Shimizugawa Y, Hirao K, Soga N. Structure and high magnetization of rapidly quenched zinc ferrite. J Phys Chem Solids 1998;59:1611-8.

Mohair I, Szepvolgyi J, Bertoti I, Mohai M, Gubicaz J, Ungar T. Thermal plasma synthesis of zinc ferrite nanopowders. Solid State Ion 2001;163:141–2.

Aghababazadeh R, Mazinani B, Mirhabibi A, Tamizifar M. ZnO nanoparticles by mechanochemical processing. J Phys Chem Solids 2006;26:312‒4.

Xu J, Pan Q, Shun Y, Tian Z. Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor. Sens Actuator B-Chem 2000;66:277–9.

Wang Y, Ma C, Sun X, Li H. Preparation of nanocrystalline metal oxide powders with the surfactant-mediated method. Inorg Chem Commun 2002;5:751‒5.

Mahato TH, Prasad GK, Acharya BSJ, Srivastava AR, Vijayaraghavan R. Nanocrystalline zinc oxide for the decontamination of sarin. J Hazard Mater 2009;165:928‒32.

Ismail AA, El-Midany A, Abdel-Aal EA, El-Shall H. Application of statistical design to optimize the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles via hydrothermal technique. Mater Lett 2005; 59:1924‒8.

Li X, He G, Xiao G, Liu H, Wang M. Synthesis and morphology control of ZnO nanostructures in microemulsions. J Colloid Interface Sci 2009;333:465‒73.

Zhang H, Yang D, Ma X, Ji Y, Xu J, Que D. Synthesis of flower-like ZnO nanostructures by an organic-free hydrothermal process. Nanotechnology 2004;15:622-6.

Geoprincy G, Nagendhra Gandhi N, Renganathan S. Novel antibacterial effects of alumina nanoparticles on bacillus cereus and bacillus subtilis in comparison with antibiotics. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:544-8.

Umamaheswara Rao V, Nagababu P. Pharmacological evaluation of ceriopsdecandra (Griff.) dinghou stem extracts. Int J Rec Sci Res 2015;6:2783-9.

Ruparelia JP, Arup Kumar Chatterjee, Siddhartha P, Duttagupta, Suparna Mukherji. Strain specificity in antimicrobial activity of silver and copper nanoparticles. Acta Biomater 2008;4:707–16.

Wang F, Liu X. In: Comprehensive nanoscience and technology. eds. Editors-in-Chief: David L. Andrews, Gregory D Scholes, Gary P. Wiederrecht, Academic Press: Amsterdam; 2011. p. 607–35.

Juliana Cristina de Freitas, Rogeriomendesbranco. Magnetic nanoparticles obtained by homogeneous coprecipitation sonochemically assisted. Mat Res 2015;18:220-4.

Madankumar M, Sivakumar D, Premkumar S, Manivannan M, Mohamed Rafi M, Prem Nazeer, et al. Synthesis and dielectric studies of magnetite nanoparticles. J Emer Tech Inn Res 2018;5:886-97.

Qiao SZ, Liu J, Lu GQ. Synthetic chemistry of nanomaterials. 2nd edition. Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry; 2017.

Gnanasangeetha D, Sarala Thambavani. One pot synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles via chemical and green method. Res J Material Sci 2013;1:1-8.

Divya MJ, Sowmia C, Joona K, Dhanya KP. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle from Hibiscus rosa-sinensisleaf extract and investigation of its antimicrobial activity. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2013;4:1137-42.

Prabhu YT, Siva Kumari B, Venkateswara Rao K, Kavitha V, Aruna Padmavathi D. Surfactant assisted synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, characterization and its antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. Int J Cur Eng Tech 2014;4:1038-41.

Haritha Meruvu, Meena Vangalapati, Seema Chaitanya Chippada, Srinivasa Rao Bammidi. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its antimicrobial activity against bacillus subtilis and escherichia coli. Rasayan J Chem 2011;1:217-22.

Rizwan W, Nagendra KK, Akhilesh KV, Anurag M, Hwang IH, You-Bing Y, et al. Fabrication and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures and their cytotoxic effect on human brain tumor U87, cervical cancer HeLa, and normal HEK cells. J BiolInorg Chem 2010;16:431-42.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 1984;219:1–14.

Emami Karvani Z, Pegah Chehrazi. Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle on gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Microbiol Res 2011;5:1368-73.

Vellora V, Padil T, Cernik M. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using gum karaya as a biotemplate and their antibacterial application. Int J Nanomed 2013;8:889–98.

Heinlaan M, Ivask A, Blinova I, Dubourguier HC, Kakru A. Toxicity of nanosized and bulk ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to bacteria Vibrio fischeriand crustaceans daphnia magna and thamnocephalusplatyurus. Chemosphere 2008;71:1308-16.

Manyasree D, Kiranmayi P, Ravikumar R. CuO nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their bactericidal efficacy. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;6:71-4.

Manyasree D, Kiranmayi P, Ravikumar RVSSN. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;1:32-35.45.

Awale JS, Dey K, Pasricha R, Sood KN, Srivastava AK. Synthesis and characterization of ZnOtetrapods for optical and antibacterial applications. Thin Solid Films 2010;519:1244–7.



How to Cite

D., M., P., K., & Kolli, V. R. (2018). CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ZnO NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED BY CO PRECIPITATION METHOD. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(6), 224–228.



Original Article(s)