• Herman Suryadi Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.
  • Faatichatun Naja Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.
  • Yahdiana Harahap Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia.



Bisphenol A, Gas chromatography, Contamination analysis, Validation, Canned beverages


Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop sensitive, selective, and valid methods for the detection of bisphenol A (BPA) contamination in
beverage samples using gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization.
Methods: The optimized analysis system employed a long HP-1 capillary column (30 m, inner diameter 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 μm), gradient
column temperature (150°C–260°C at 10°C/min), and nitrogen as a carrier gas (1 mL/min). Samples were prepared for analysis using ethyl acetate
as the extraction solvent.
Results: This method yielded a linearity coefficient of 0.9998, while the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.287 μg/mL and
0.956 μg/mL, respectively. All validation parameters, including linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ, meet recognized acceptability
criteria. Contamination analysis showed that one of the three beverage brands tested contained 2.4090 μg/mL BPA, and contamination was even
higher after heating.
Conclusion: BPA contamination may occur in canned beverages, especially under improper storage conditions. This GC-based BPA detection system
may be useful for the detection of BPA contamination in consumer beverages.


Download data is not yet available.


Ng HW, Shu M, Luo H, Ye H, Ge W, Perkins R, et al. Estrogenic activity

data extraction and in silico prediction show the endocrine disruption

potential of bisphenol A replacement compounds. Chem Res Toxicol


Shrinithivihahshini N, Mahamuni D, Praveen N. Bisphenol a migration

study in baby feeding bottles of selected brands available in the Indian

market. Curr Sci 2014;106:1081-84.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Opinion of the scientific

panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in

contact with food (AFC) on request from the commission related to

,2 bis(hydroxyphenol)propane (bisphenol A). Eur Food Soc Authority


Errico S, Bianco M, Mita L, Migliaccio M, Rossi S, Nicolucci C,

et al. Migration of bisphenol A into canned tomatoes produced in

Italy: Dependence on temperature and storage conditions. Food Chem


Nagel R., Bosch-Domenech A, Satorra A, Garcia-Montalvo J. One, Two,

(Three), Infinity: NewspaperandLabBeauty-ContestExperiments. Barcelone:

Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Available from:


Careri M, Furlattini L, Mangia A, Musc M, Anklam E, Theobald A, et al.

Supercritical fluid extraction for liquid chromatographic determination

of carotenoids in spirulina Pacifica algae: A chemometric approach.

J Chromatogr A 2001;912:61-71.

Inoue K, Mizuno T, Wada K, Hagiwara M. Novel RING finger proteins,

air1p and air2p, interact with hmt1p and inhibit the arginine methylation

of npl3p. J Biol Chem 2000;275:32793-9.

Sajiki H, Hirota K. Formation of Pd/C-ethylenediamine complexes

[Pd/C(en)] and its application to selective hydrogenations. scientific

magazine of synthesis 2001;59:109-20.

Pedersen B, Rasmussen KE. Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction for

sample preparation of biological fluids prior to capillary electrophoresis.

Anal Chem 1999;71:2650-6.

Jeannot R, Sabik H, Sauvard E, Dagnac T, Dohrendorf K. Determination

of endocrine-disrupting compounds in environmental samples using

gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr

A 2002;974:143-59.

Zafra G, Del Olmo M, Pulgar R, Navalon A, Vilchez JL. Determination

of bisphenol-A and related compounds in human saliva by gas

chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chromatographia 2002;56:213-8.

Harmita H, Mansur U, Stephanie S. Determination of docosahexaenoic

acid in infant formulas with gas chromatography. Asian J Pharm Clin

Res 2018;11:247-50.

Sujatha P, Evanjaline M, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan VR.

Determination of bioactive components of Barleria courtallica Nees

(Acanthaceae) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis.

Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:273-83.

De Meulenaer B, Baert K, Lanckriet H, Van Hoed V, Huyghebaert A.

Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for bisphenol A

using chicken immunoglobulins. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:5273‑82.

Wang FC, Burleson D. The development of pyrolysis-fast gas

chromatography for analysis of synthetic plymers. J Chromatogr A


Chaskar PK, Tank SH, Doshi GM. Gas chromatography-mass

spectroscopy studies on Cestrum nocturnum macerated methanolic

extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:259-63.

Rykowska I, Szymanski A, Waisak W. Determination of bisphenol A

in drinking water using new SPE sorbents with chemically bonded

ketamine group. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 2005;13:355-61.

Miryani A, Leilani G, Zenilda D. Hollow fiber liquid-phase

microextration-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to

analyze bisphenol A and other plasticizer metabolites. J Chromatogr A


Szyrwinska K, Lulek J. Chemically bonded phases for the analysis of trace

amounts of organic pollutants. Toxicol Mech Methods 2008;18:537-42.

International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). Guidance for

Industry: Validation of Analytical Procedures; 1996.

Cao XL, Corriveau J, Popovic S. Levels of bisphenol A in canned soft

drink products in Canadian markets. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:1307‑11.



How to Cite

Suryadi, H., Naja, F., & Harahap, Y. (2018). DETECTION OF BISPHENOL A CONTAMINATION IN CANNED CARBONATED BEVERAGES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(1), 116–119.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>