FORMULATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF A HAND SANITIZER GEL PRODUCED USING SALAM BARK EXTRACT
Keywords:Antibacterial, Hand sanitizer, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Physical stability, Salam bark extract
Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Salam bark extract against Staphylococcus
aureus, formulate and evaluate hand sanitizer gels containing Salam bark extract, and determine the effectiveness of the gels against bacteria on the
palms of the hands.
Methods: The gel base was optimized by preparing three formulations containing carbomer and triethanolamine at ratios of 0.25%:0.5%, 0.5%:1%,
and 0.5%:2%. The best gel formulation was mixed with Salam bark extract. The physical stability of gels containing 4.04% (formulation 1) and 7.77%
(formulation 2) Salam bark extract was measured at 4Â±2Â°C, 27Â±2Â°C, and 40Â±2Â°C for 12 weeks. The effectiveness of the gels was examined on the palms
of 30 respondents.
Results: The MIC of Salam bark extract was 3.12%. The best gel base contained carbomer and triethanolamine at a ratio of 1â€“4 and a pH of 5.50.
Formulations 1 and 2 gels had good stability for 12 weeks. Formulation 2 tended to decrease the number of bacteria (p=0.125) better than formulation
1 (p=1.000). In the hedonic study, formulation 2 was preferred to formulation 1.
Conclusion: Formulation 2 gel with 7.77% Salam bark extract was more effective than formulation 1 gel with 4.04% extract in decreasing the number of
bacteria on the palms.
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