CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN APPLIED IN HPLC OPTIMIZATION FOR ANALYSIS OF TARTRAZINE AND AURAMINE O IN POWDER DRINKS
Keywords:Tartrazine, Auramin O, HPLC, CCD, Powder drink
Objective: This study was intended to optimize reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of Tartrazine (TAR) and Auramin O (AUO) in powder drinks using experimental design of central composite design (CCD) approach.
Methods: TAR and AUO in powder drink product has same properties, therefore both analytes were analysed using C18 column (XBridge Shield RP 18 250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) using Shimadzu LC 20AD chromatograph equipped with photo-diode array (PDA) detector at 300-650 nm. Some factors responsible for RP-HPLC separation of TAR and AUO including the concentration of buffer, the ratio of mobile phase and flow rate were optimized using CCD. The responses evaluated were peak area, retention time, and tailing factor. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer, and acetonitrile composition was optimized at 84-86% for separation of TAR and AUO, delivered at a flow rate of 0.8–1.2 ml/min, using ammonium acetate buffer at 19-21 mmol.
Results: CCD showed that separation of TAR and AUO was influenced by flow rate, the ratio of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate concentration. These factors affected significantly to retention time, peak area, and tailing factor. The optimal condition obtained based on CCD was flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, the ratio of acetonitrile 86%, and ammonium acetate concentration of 19 mmol.
Conclusion: CCD can be used to get optimum condition for analysis of TAR and AUO in powder drink product.
Kucharska M, Grabka J. A review of chromatographic methods for determination of synthetic food dyes. Talanta 2010; 80:1045–51.
Bachalla N. Identification of synthetic food colors adulteration by paper chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. IAIM 2016;3:182-91.
Kamel MM, El-lethey SH. The potential health hazard of tartrazine and levels of hyperactivity, anxiety-like symptoms, depression and anti-social behaviour in rats. J Am Sci 2011;7:1211–8.
Sha O, Zhu X, Feng Y, Ma W. Determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in food samples by combining the ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system with high-performance liquid chromatography. J Anal Methods Chem 2014;2014:964273.
Khera KS, Munro IC. A review of the specifications and toxicity of synthetic food colors permitted in Canada. CRC Critical Rev Toxicol 1979;6:81–133.
Tonogai Y, Kingkate A, dan Halilamian C. Quantitative determination of colorants in dried shrimp and shrimp paste using ion-exchange extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. J Food Protec 1983;46:592–5.
Tatebe C, Zhong X, Ohtsuki T, Kubota H, Sato K, Akiyama H. A simple and rapid chromatographic method to determine unauthorized basic colorants (rhodamine B, auramine O, and pararosaniline) in processed foods. Food Sci Nutr 2014; 2:547–56.
Li J, Ding X, Zheng J, Liu D, Guo F, Liu H. Determination of synthetic dyes in bean and meat products by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: other techniques. J Sep Sci 2014;37:2439–45.
Rejczak T, Tuzimski T. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector for simultaneous determination of 11 synthetic dyes in selected beverages and foodstuffs. Food Anal Methods 2017;10:3572–88.
Minioti KS, Sakellariou CF, Thomaidis NS. Determination of 13 synthetic food colorants in water-soluble foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector. Anal Chim Acta 2007;583:103–10.
Sulekova M, Hudak A, Smrcova M. The determination of food dyes in vitamins by RP-HPLC. Molecules 2016;21:1368-72.
Karimi S, Feizy J, Mehrjo F, Farrokhnia M. Detection and quantification of food colorant adulteration in saffron sample using chemometric analysis of FT-IR spectra. RSC Adv 2016;6:23085–93.
Hibbert DB. Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review. J Chromatogr B 2012;910:2–13.
Bezerra MA, Santelli RE, Oliveira EP, Villar LS, Escaleira LA. Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta 2008;76:965–77.
Purba N, Rohman A, Martono S. The optimization of HPLC for quantitative analysis of acid orange 7 and Sudan II in cosmetic products using box behnken design. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:130-7.
Khanam N, Alam MI, Iqbal QMA, Ali MY, Siddiqui AR. A review on the optimization of drug delivery system with experimental designs. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:12-7.
Siregar C, Prabaningdyah NK, Choiri S, Riyanto S, Rohman A. Optimization of HPLC using central composite design for determination of curcumin and demethoxycurcumin in the tablet dosage form. Dhaka Univ J Pharm Sci 2018;16:137-45.
Setyawan EI, Setyowati EP, Rohman A, Nugroho AK. Central composite design for optimizing extraction of EGCG from green tea leaf (Camellia sinensis L.). Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:211–6.