• ZAHRAA ALAA HASAN Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Kerbala, Kerbala City, Iraq
  • JINAN MUHAMMED MUHSIN ALMOUSAWY Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Kerbala, Kerbala City, Iraq
  • HAMID SADEQ KHALEEL ALGHURABI Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Kerbala, Kerbala City, Iraq



Hydrogel, Almond oil, Ketoprofen


Objective: The object of this study is to formulate ketoprofen hydrogels and to evaluate their permeability following the incorporation of almond oil as a penetration enhancer.

Methods: Five formulas (F2-F6) of ketoprofen hydrogels were formulated with the employment of carbopol 940 and triethanolamine. A gradual increase in the amount of almond oil was used in each formula. In vitro penetration and release kinetic study was conducted for all the formulations and compared with the control formula (F1) which was prepared without the incorporation of almond oil.

Results: There was a strong positive correlation between % of incorporated almond oil and the % of drug released when the samples were compared with F1 that was formulated without almond oil. After 24 h, 90% of medication was penetrated from ketoprofen hydrogel formulation (F6), which had 5% almond oil.

Conclusion: Almond oil has successfully worked as a natural penetration enhancer when five ketoprofen hydrogel formulations were prepared and evaluated.


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How to Cite

HASAN, Z. A., ALMOUSAWY, J. M. M., & ALGHURABI, H. S. K. (2020). THE THE EFFECT OF ALMOND OIL ON THE PERMEABILITY OF KETOPROFEN HYDROGEL. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(2), 65–69.



Original Article(s)