• ROSITA HANDAYANI Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • ANDRE BANGUN Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • PASKAH DEWI DEBORAH Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • ABDUL MUN’IM Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia




Antioxidant activity, Mahkota dewa, Microwave-assisted extraction, Natural deep eutectic solvents, Phaleria macrocarpa, Total phenolic content


Objective: This work aimed to determine the optimal extraction conditions of Mahkota dewa using different extraction methods: microwave-assisted
extraction with ethanol (MAE-ethanol), ultrasonic-assisted extraction using a choline chloride natural deep eutectic solvent (UAE-NADES), and
Soxhlet and reflux extractions.
Methods: Experimental design was performed through Box-Behnken. The efficiency of the methods was evaluated based on the total phenolic content
(TPC) and antioxidant activity. The presence of relevant compounds was qualitatively assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Results: For the MAE-ethanol method, optimum extraction was achieved with 65% ethanol, in 1 min under 30% microwave power, and a 1:12 sample–
solvent ratio, which yielded a TPC and antioxidant activity of 62.79±0.74 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g powder and 30.48±0.32%, respectively. In
UAE-NADES, the optimal conditions were choline chloride: lactic acid ratio of 1:4 with a 50% water addition, 20 min extraction (TPC and antioxidant
activity of 65.25 mg GAE/g powder and 26.45±0.02%). The Soxhlet and reflux methods gave a TPC of 49.68±0.59 and 50.98±0.54 mg GAE/g powder,
and antioxidant activity of 22.87±0.13% and 25.97±0.34%, respectively. Qualitative HPLC analysis showed the presence of quercetin, mahkoside A,
4,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and mangiferin.
Conclusion: MAE-ethanol was more efficient than the conventional Soxhlet and reflux methods and performed similarly to UAE-NADES in terms of TPC.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Kurnia D, Akiyama K, Hayashi H. 29-Norcucurbitacin derivatives
isolated from the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa
(Scheff.) Boerl. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2008;72:618-20.
2. Easmin MS, Sarker MZ, Ferdosh S, Shamsudin SH, Yunus KB,
Uddin MS et al. Bioactive compounds and advanced processing
technology: Phaleria macrocarpa (Sheff.) Boerl, a review. J Chem
Technol Biotechnol 2015;90:981-91.
3. Hendra R, Ahmad S, Sukari A, Shukor MY, Oskoueian E. Flavonoid
analyses and antimicrobial activity of various parts of Phaleria
macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit. Int J Mol Sci 2011;12:3422-31.
4. Rinayanti A, Radji M, Mun’im A, Suyatna FD. Screening angiotensin
converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity of antihypertensive
medicinal plants from Indonesia. Int J Pharm Teach Pract 2013;4:527-32.
5. Oshimi S, Zaima K, Matsuno Y, Hirasawa Y, Iizuka T, Studiawan H,
et al. Studies on the constituents from the fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa.
J Nat Med 2008;62:207-10.
6. Ali RB, Atangwho IJ, Kuar N, Ahmad M, Mahmud R, Asmawi MZ.
In vitro and in vivo effects of standardized extract and fractions of
Phaleria macrocarpa fruits pericarp on lead carbohydrate digesting
enzymes. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:39.
7. Espino M, de los Ángeles Fernández M, Gomez FJ, Silva MF. Natural
designer solvents for greening analytical chemistry. TrAC Trends Anal
Chem 2016;76:126-36.
8. Cvjetko Bubalo M, ?urko N, Tomaševi? M, Kova?evi? Gani? K,
Radoj?i? Redovnikovi? I. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by
using deep eutectic solvents. Food Chem 2016;200:159-66.
9. García A, Rodríguez-Juan E, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Rios JJ, Fernández-
Bolaños J. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by
deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Food Chem 2016;197:554-61.
10. Bobo-García G, Davidov-Pardo G, Arroqui C, Vírseda P, Marín-
Arroyo MR, Navarro M. Intra-laboratory validation of microplate
methods for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity
on polyphenolic extracts, and comparison with conventional
spectrophotometric methods. J Sci Food Agric 2015;95:204-9.
11. Musa KH, Abdullah A, Kuswandi B, Hidayat MA. A novel high
throughput method based on the DPPH dry reagent array for
determination of antioxidant activity. Food Chem 2013;141:4102-6.
12. Dai Y, Witkamp GJ, Verpoorte R, Choi YH. Natural deep eutectic
solvents as a new extraction media for phenolic metabolites in
Carthamus tinctorius L. Anal Chem 2013;85:6272-8.
13. Wei Z, Qi X, Li T, Luo M, Wang W, Zu Y, et al. Application of natural
deep eutectic solvents for extraction and determination of phenolics in
Cajanus cajan leaves by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Sep
Purif Technol 2015;149:237-44.
14. Paiva A, Craveiro R, Aroso I, Martins M, Reis RL, Duarte AR.
ChemInform abstract: Natural deep eutectic solvents-solvents for the
21st century. ChemInform 2014;2:1063-71.
15. Alañón ME, Ivanovi? M, Gómez-Caravaca AM, Arráez-Román D,
Segura-Carretero A. Choline chloride derivative-based deep eutectic
liquids as novel green alternative solvents for extraction of phenolic
compounds from olive leaf. Arab J Chem 2018;149:237-44.
16. Kim WJ, Veriansyah B, Lee YW, Kim J, Kim JD. Extraction of
mangiferin from mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) using
subcritical water. J Ind Eng Chem 2010;16:425-30.
17. Chan CH, Yusoff R, Ngoh GC, Kung FW. Microwave-assisted
extractions of active ingredients from plants. J Chromatogr A
18. Song J, Li D, Liu C, Zhang Y. Optimized microwave-assisted extraction
of total phenolics (TP) from Ipomoea batatas leaves and its antioxidant
activity. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2011;12:282-7.
19. Chanioti S, Siamandoura P, Tzia C. Application of Natural Deep
Eutectic Solvents for Extraction of Polyphenolics from Olive Oil Byproducts
Using Microwaves. Waltham: Thermo; 2016. p. 107-9.
20. Huang Y, Feng F, Jiang J, Qiao Y, Wu T, Voglmeir J, et al. Green and
efficient extraction of rutin from tartary buckwheat hull by using natural
deep eutectic solvents. Food Chem 2017;221:1400-5.
21. Ruesgas-Ramón M, Figueroa-Espinoza MC, Durand E. Application
of deep eutectic solvents (DES) for phenolic compounds extraction:
Overview, challenges, and opportunities. J Agric Food Chem
22. Derakhshan Z, Ferrante M, Tadi M, Ansari F, Heydari A, Hosseini MS,
et al. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic
extract of pomegranate peels, juice and seeds. Food Chem Toxicol
23. Zhang YB, Xu XJ, Liu HM. Chemical constituents from mahkota dewa.
J Asian Nat Prod Res 2006;8:119-23.
24. Altaf R, Asmawi MZ, Dewa A, Sadikun A, Umar MI. Phytochemistry
and medicinal properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.
extracts. Pharmacogn Rev 2013;7:73-80.



How to Cite

HANDAYANI, R., BANGUN, A., DEBORAH, P. D., & MUN’IM, A. (2020). OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE- AND ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF MAHKOTA DEWA (PHALERIA MACROCARPA [SCHEFF.] BOERL.) FRUIT PULP. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(1), 32–37. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s1.FF002



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)