• MUHAMMAD AMJAD Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • ZOBIA ANWER Department of Botany, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan



Antioxidant ability, DPPH scavenging assay, TPC, P. granatum L., Peroxides


Objective: P. granatum L. is famous for antioxidant activity and utilized as a nourishing foodstuff. This work aimed to recognize the antioxidant activity and TPC in extracts of ripe and unripe fruit juice.

Methods: Competency of the solvents (water, methanol, acetone, chloroform, ethanol) were evaluated by analyzing extracts of ripe and unripe P. granatum L. fruit juice for TPC and DPPH* scavenging assay. FTC method measured the level of peroxides.

Results: In TPC extraction, the water solvent showed greater potential in both ripe (10.5±2.1) and unripe fruit juice (4.1±0.3) amongst all other solvents. Ethanol and water solvent showed the highest value of DPPH* scavenging activity (96%±6.81 and 72%±3.50 respectively) in ripe and unripe fruit juice. According to absorbance of DPPH radicals, the water solvent showed the highest antioxidant potential in ripe fruit juice (86%±6.78) like chloroform solvent in unripe fruit juice (14%±0.03). Unripe fruit juice showed lowest level of absorbance of DPPH radicals and highest antioxidant potential amid all solvents. In FTC method, unripe fruit juice showed the highest antioxidant activity and low amount of peroxides for consecutively seven days.

Conclusion: Ripe fruit juice showed the highest TPC and unripe fruit juice showed the maximum value of antioxidant potential. P. granatum L. provides an excellent supply of antioxidant activity and used in pharmaceutical and food industry.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Hernandez F, Melgarejo P, Tomas Barberan FA, Artes F. Evolution of juice anthocyanins during ripening of new selected pomegranate (Punica granatum) clones. Eur Food Res Technol 1999;210:39-42.
2. Gomez Caravaca AM, Verardo V, Toselli M, Segura Carretero A, Fernandez Gutierrez A, Caboni MF. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC?DAD?ESI?MS. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61:5328-37.
3. Ahmad N, Fazal H, Ayaz M, Abbasi BH, Mohammad I, Fazal L. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;1:330-4.
4. Iqbal S, Younas U, Chan KW, Zia-ul-Haq M, Ismail M. Chemical composition of Artemisia annua L. leaves and antioxidant potential of extracts as a function of extraction solvents. Molecules 2012;17:6020-32.
5. Al-Muammar MN, Fozia K. Obesity: the preventive role of the pomegranate (Punica granatum). Nutrition 2012;28:595-604.
6. Oad FC, Lakho AA, Khan A, Ansari AH, Sheikh FM, Khail MUU. Economics of Papaya in Malir, District Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Agric Biol 2001;3:477-81.
7. Annegowda HV, Mordi MN, Ramanathan S, Hamdan MR, Mansor SM. Effect of extraction techniques on phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Bauhinia purpurea: HPTLC determination of antioxidants. Food Anal Methods 2012;5:226-33.
8. Ding WJ, Hasegawa T, Peng D, Hosaka H, Seko Y. Preliminary investigation on the cytotoxicity of tellurite to cultured HeLa cells. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2002;16:99-102.
9. Wijekoon MMJO, Bhat R, Karim AA. Effect of extraction solvents on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of bunga kantan (Etlingera elatior J.) inflorescence. J Food Compost Anal 2001;24:615-9.
10. Lee JY, Hwang WI, Lim ST. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of organic extracts from Platycodon grandiflorum A. de candolle roots. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93:409-15.
11. Zhou K, Laux JJ, Yu LL. Comparison of swiss red wheat grain and fractions for their antioxidant properties. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:1118-23.
12. Gai QY, Jiao J, Mu PS, Wang W, Luo M, Li CY, et al. Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from Isatis indigotica seeds and its evaluation of physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities. Ind Crops Prod 2013;45:303-11.
13. Sultana B, Anwar F, Ashraf M. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules 2009;14:2167-80.
14. Elfalleh W, Tlili N, Nisari N, Yahia Y. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits. J Food Sci 2011;76:C707-C713.
15. Jayaprakasha GK, B Girennavar B, Patil BS. Antioxidant capacity of pummelo and navel oranges: extraction efficiency of solvents in sequence. LWT Food Sci Technol 2008;41:376-84.
16. Yang J, Liu RH, Halim L. Antioxidant antiprolifera activities of common edible nut seeds. LWT Food Sci Technol 2009;42:1-8.
17. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983;65:55-63.
18. Hemwimon S, Pavasant P, Shotipruk A. Microwave-assisted extraction of antioxidative anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia. Sep Purif Technol 2007;54:44-50.
19. Azizah AH, Ruslawati NMN, Tee TS. Extraction and characterization of antioxidant from cocoa by-product. Food Chem 1999;64:199-202.
20. Leng B, Liu XD, Chen QX. Inhibitory effects of an anticancer peptide from Mercenariaon the BGC-823 cells and several enzymes. FEBS Lett 2005;579:1187-90.



How to Cite

AMJAD, M., and Z. ANWER. “ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN RIPE AND UNRIPE POMEGRANATE (PUNICA GRANATUM L.) FRUIT JUICE”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 13, no. 4, July 2021, pp. 60-63, doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2021v13i4.42745.



Original Article(s)