• Bheemesh Vangalapati
  • Poornima A. Manjrekar Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College,Mangalore,Manipal University, Karnataka, India
  • Anupama Hegde
  • Amith Kumar


Objective: Study was designed to assess the P.marsupium heartwood aqueous extract effect on diabetes induced cognitive impairment.

Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by Streptozotocin (STZ) & Nicotinamide (NA) intraperitoneal route injection. Animals were divided into 7 groups for comparing the activity of P.marsupium at two doses 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg b. w against standard (Glibenclamide) & controls groups. Rats having blood glucose above 250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Learning & memory was tested using Morris water maze. Time taken to reach the platform (escape latencies) by animals was noted from day 1 to 8 and probe trial was conducted on day 9 to record the time spent in the different quadrants.

Results: Blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) reduced in plant treated and glibenclamide groups when compared to diabetic controls. Also both the treated groups had decreased escape latencies in learning phase. During probe trial, test and standard treated groups spent significantly more time in target quadrant with less entries into other quadrants compared to untreated diabetic controls.

Conclusion: The results of this investigation revealed that extract of P. marsupium provides beneficial effects on learning and memory in diabetes rats by providing the potential antihyperglycemic action.

Keywords: Cognitive impairment, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic neuropathy, Morris water maze, Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood.


Download data is not yet available.


American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2014;37:14-80.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. World J Diabetes 2014;5:889-93.

Biswas A, Bhattacharya S, Mahapatra SD, Debnath M, Biswas M. The Antioxidant effects of Eupatorium triplinerve, Hygro-philatriflora and Pterocarpus marsupium-A comparative study. Eur J Appl Sci 2012;4:136-9.

Maruthupandian A, Mohan VR. Antidiabetic, Anti-hyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. In alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J PharmTech Res 2011;3:1681-7.

Chakravarthy BK, Gupta S, Gambhir SS, Gode K. Pancreatic beta-cell regeneration: A novel antidiabetic mechanism of P. marsupium, Roxb. Indian J Pharm 1980;12:123.

Dhanabal SP, Kokate CK, Ramanathan M, Kumar EP, Suresh B. Hypoglycemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Pytother Res 2006;2:4.

Committee for the purpose of control and supervision of experiments on animals. CPCSEA guidelines for laboratory animal facility. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:257-74.

Rabbani SI, Devi K, Khanam S. Protective role of glibenclamide against nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced nuclear damage in diabetic Wistar rats. J Pharmacol Ther 2010;1:18-23.

Papadopoulos P, Rosa-Neto P, Rochford J, Hamel E. Pioglitazone improves reversal learning and exerts mixed cerebrovascular effects in a mouse model of alzheimer’s disease with combined amyloid-β and cerebrovascular pathology. J PLoS One 2013;8:e68612. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068612. [Article in Press].

Chen G, Chen KS, Knox J, Inglis J, Bernard. A learning deficit related to age and beta-amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 2000;408:975-9.

Chauhan B, Chaudhary AK. Memory enhancing activity of methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium. Roxb. Phytopharmacology 2012;2:72-80.

Chintawar SD, Somani RS, Veena S, Kasture SB. Nootropic activity of Albizzia lebbeck in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:299-305.

Manickam M, Ramanathan M, Jahromy MAF, Chansouria JPN, Ray AB. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. J Nat Prod 1997;60:609-10.

Chakravarthy BK, Gupta S, Gambhir SS, Gode KD. Pancreatic beta cell regeneration. A novel antidiabetic mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium. Roxb. Indian J Pharmacol 1980;12:123-7.

Vangalapati B, Manjrekar PA, Hegde A. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood & Tribulus terrestris dry fruits: An in vitro comparative study. J Pharm Res 2014;8:610-3.

Mohammad I, Zafar I, Javid H, Hidayat H, Manzoor A, Asma E, et al. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Geranium Wallichianum. Rec Nat Prod 2009;3:193-7.

Halagappa K, Girish HN, Srinivasan BP. The study of aqueous extract Pterocarpus marsupium. Roxb. on cytokine TNF-α in type 2 diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42:392-6.



How to Cite

Vangalapati, B., P. A. Manjrekar, A. Hegde, and A. Kumar. “PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM HEARTWOOD EXTRACT RESTORES LEARNING, MEMORY AND COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY IN A STZ-NA INDUCED DIABETES ANIMAL MODEL”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, Mar. 2016, pp. 339-43,



Original Article(s)