• Praveen Kumar Vemuri Centre for Genomics & Proteomics, Department of Biotechnology, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Bhavana Talluri
  • Suryanarayana Veeravalli
  • Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga


Objective: The rationale of the present research work was to get insights of galectin-3 function in modulating inflammation in macrophages and adipocytes culture systems.

Methods: Recombinant galectin-3 was prepared, and anti-inflammatory effect of galectin-3 was studied in 3T3-L adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide followed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, we determined the galectin-3 effect on LPS-mediated ROS and NO generation in RAW macrophage cells by using DHE and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 respectively.

Results: Galectin-3 negatively regulates the exaggerated inflammatory response in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, by lowering cytokines in adipocytes and macrophages. Reduced oxidative stress was evident as the production of ROS and NO was diminished to a great extent by galectin-3 in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages. This was also confirmed by the ability of galectin-3 in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential against lipopolysaccharide-induced massive membrane depolarization by galectin-3.

Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it is rational to mention that galectin-3 exhibits significant anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in adipocyte and macrophage culture systems, when exposed to lipopolysaccharide.

Keywords: Galectin-3, Adipocytes, Macrophages, LPS, Glycobiology, Toll-like receptor


Download data is not yet available.


Schäffler A, Müller-Ladner U, Schölmerich J, Büchler C. Role of adipose tissue as an inflammatory organ in human diseases. Endocr Rev 2006;27:449–67.

Beutler B. Tlr4. Central component of the sole mammalian LPS sensor. Curr Opin Immunol 2000;12:20–6.

Hotamisligil GS, Shargill NS, Spiegelman BM. Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-α: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science 1993;259:87–91.

Rhodes DH, Pini M, Castellanos KJ, Montero-Melendez T, Cooper D, Perretti M, et al. Adipose tissue-specific modulation of galectin expression in lean and obese mice: evidence for regulatory function. Obesity 2012;21:310-9.

Kim YH, Choi KH, Park JW, Kwon TK. LY294002 inhibits LPS-induced NO production through an inhibition of NF-κB activation: independent mechanism of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Immunol Lett 2005;99:45–50.

Liu FT, Yang RY, Hsu DK. Galectins in acute and chronic inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2012;1253:80-91.

Yamaoka A, Kuwabara I, Frigeri LG, Liu FT. A human lectin, galectin-3 (epsilon bp/Mac-2), stimulates superoxide production by neutrophils. J Immunol 1995;154:3479-87.

Liu FT, Hsu DK, Zuberi RI, Kuwabara I, Chi EY, Henderson WR Jr. Expression and function of galectin-3, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, in human monocytes and macrophages. Am J Pathol 1995;147:1016-28.

Frigeri LG, Zuberi RI, Liu FT. Epsilon BP, a beta-galactoside-binding animal lectin, recognizes IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) and activates mast cells. Biochemistry 1993;32:7644-9.

Cortegano I, Del PV, Cardaba B, De Andres B, Gallardo S, Del Amo A, et al. Galectin-3 down-regulates IL-5 gene expression on different cell types. J Immunol 1998;161:385-9.

Acosta-Rodriguez EV, Montes CL, Motran CC, Zuniga EI, Liu FT, Rabinovich GA, et al. Galectin-3 mediates IL-4-induced survival and differentiation of B cells: functional cross-talk and implications during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. J Immunol 2004;172493-502.

Ulloa L, Tracey KJ. The cytokine profileâ€: a code for sepsis. Trends Mol Med 2005;11:56–63.

Raha S, McEachern GE, Myint AT, Robinson BH. Superoxides from mitochondrial complex III: the role of manganese superoxide dismutase. Free Radical Biol Med 2000;29:170–80.

Yang F, Tang E, Guan K, Wang CY. IKKβ plays an essential role in the phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on serine-536 induced by lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 2003;170:5630–5.

Praveen Kumar Vemuri, Suryanarayana Veeravalli. Expression, purification, and characterization of human recombinant galectin 3 in pichia pastoris. Iran J Biotechnol 2014;12:3-8.

Krautbauer S, Eisinger K, Hader Y, Buechler C. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice. Cytokine 2014;69:263-71.

Vlassara H, Li YM, Imani F, Wojciechowicz D, Yang Z, Liu FT, et al. Identification of galectin-3 as a high-affinity binding protein for advanced glycation end products (AGE): a new member of the AGE-receptor complex. Mol Med 1995;1:634-46.

Sárvári AK, Doan-Xuan Q-M, Bacsó Z, Csomós I, Balajthy Z, Fésüs L. Interaction of differentiated human adipocytes with macrophages leads to trogocytosis and selective IL-6 secretion. Cell Death Dis 2015;6:e1613.

Baer M, Dillner A, Schwartz RC, Sedon C, Nedospasov S, Johnson PF. Tumor necrosis factor alpha transcription in macrophages is attenuated by an autocrine factor that preferentially induces NF-κB p50. Mol Cell Biol 1998;18:5678-89.

Fermino ML, Polli CD, Toledo KA. LPS-Induced galectin-3 oligomerization results in enhancement of neutrophil activation. PLoS One 2011;6:e26004. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026004. [Epub 21 Oct 2011]

Takenaka Y, Fukumori T, Yoshii T. Nuclear export of phosphorylated galectin-3 regulates its antiapoptotic activity in response to chemotherapeutic drugs. Mol Cel Biol 2004;24:4395-406.

Uy B, McGlashan SR, Shaikh SB. Measurement of reactive oxygen species in the culture media using acridine lumigen PS-3 assay. J Biomol Tech 2011;22:95-107.

Bauerfeld CP, Rastogi R, Pirockinaite G. TLR4-mediated AKT activation is MyD88/TRIF-dependent and critical for Induction of OxPhos and mitochondrial transcription factor a in murine macrophages. J Immunol 2012;188:2847-57.

Alexandra K Kiemer, Christian Müller, Angelika M Vollmar. Inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide and TNF-/production by/-lipoic acid in rat Kupffer cells and in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Immunol Cell Biol 2002;80:550–7.

Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 2003;112:1785.

Fantuzzi G. Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:911-9.

Kumar VP, Suryanarayana V, Sudhakar P, Rao KR. Study of the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant human galectin-3 in the context of metabolic pathologies and chronic inflammation in obesity. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2013;3:627-32.

Creely SJ, McTernan PG, Kusminski CM, Da Silva NF, Khanolkar M, Evans M, et al. Lipopolysaccharide activates an innate immune system response in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol: Endocrinol Metab 2007;292: E740-7.

Xiao YQ, Malcolm K, Worthen GS, Gardai S, Schiemann WP, Fadok VA, et al. Cross-talk between ERK and p38 MAPK mediates selective suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by transforming growth factor-β. J Biol Chem 2002;277:14884-93.



How to Cite

Vemuri, P. K., B. Talluri, S. Veeravalli, and V. L. Bodiga. “GALECTIN-3 IN REGULATION OF INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES MEDIATED BY LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN MACROPHAGES AND ADIPOCYTES CULTURE SYSTEMS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, Mar. 2016, pp. 356-60,



Original Article(s)