• Pitchaiah Dasari Department of Physiology, NRI Medical College & General Hospital, Chinakakani, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh 522503
  • Anandamurali R. Department of Physiology, NRI Medical College & General Hospital, Chinakakani, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh 522503
  • Prasunpriya Nayak Department of Physiology, NRI Medical College & General Hospital, Chinakakani, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh 522503




Tocotrienol, Reduced glutathione, Lipid peroxidation, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, Glutathione reductase, Superoxide and peroxide handling capacity (SPHC), Frontal cortex, Temporal cortex, Thalamic area, Hippocampus, Cerebellum


Objective: Tocotrienol (TT), a constituent of vitamin E, present only in selected seed oil. Because of the isoprenoid side chain, antioxidant property of tocotrienol is recently highlighted. Application of tocotrienol is also proven to be neuroprotective. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of tocotrienol pretreatment on the serum and brain oxidative stress parameters and oxidant handling capacities.

Methods: Male albino Wistar rats were treated with tocotrienol (10 mg/day) for two weeks and maintained for the next four weeks. Levels of reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were estimated fortnightly in serum. After sacrifice, oxidative stress parameters were measured in the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, thalamic area, hippocampus and cerebellum. Glutathione-dependent and glutathione-independent superoxide and peroxide handling capacities (SPHC) were calculated for serum and brain regions. Data collected from both the groups are statistically processed with Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney pairwise comparisons.

Results: Significant impacts of TT treatment have been observed in terms of growth and water intake. Serum SPHC (Glutathione-independent) has been found to be reduced significantly immediately after the TT treatment. Region-specific alterations in oxidative stress parameters have also been observed after 4 w of supplementation. Global reductions in reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation have been observed in the brain without any alteration in the SPHC.

Conclusion: From the results, it can be suggested that the tocotrienol pretreatment possibly be used as neuroprotective measure particularly against oxidative stress. In addition, the antioxidant impacts of TT were found to be maintained for a longer period in brain regions, even though it was not so in the case of serum.


Download data is not yet available.


Kaneai N, Sumitani K, Fukui K, Koike T, Takatsu H, Urano S. Tocotrienol improves learning and memory deficit of aged rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2016;58:114-21.

Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Prasad S, Kannappan R. Tocotrienols, the vitamin E of the 21st century: its potential against cancer and other chronic diseases. Biochem Pharmacol 2010;80:1613-31.

Ahsan H, Ahad A, Iqbal J, Siddiqui WA. Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2014;11:52.

Azlina MF, Nafeeza MI, Khalid BA. A comparison between tocopherol and tocotrienol effects on gastric parameters in rats exposed to stress. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2005;14:358-65.

Reznick AZ, Witt E, Matsumoto M, Packer L. Vitamin E inhibits protein oxidation in skeletal muscle of resting and exercised rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992;189:801-6.

Nayak P, Sharma SB, Chowdary NVS. Pro-oxidant status based alterations in cerebellar antioxidant response to aluminum insult. Neurochem J 2012;6:44-52.

Nayak P, Sharma SB, Chowdary NV. Aluminum and ethanol induce alterations in superoxide and peroxide handling capacity (SPHC) in the frontal and temporal cortex. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2013;50:402-10.

Nagapan G, Meng Goh Y, Shameha Abdul Razak I, Nesaretnam K, Ebrahimi M. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on cognitive function development in male offspring rats. BMC Neurosci 2013;14:77.

Stevens L. Buffers and the determination of protein concentration. In: Eisenthal R, Danson MJ. editors. Enzymatic Assay-A Practical Approach. Oxford: IRL Press; 1992. p. 316-35.

Griffith OW. Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide using glutathione reductase and 2-vinylpyridine. Anal Biochem 1980;106:207-12.

Buege JA, Aust SD. Lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1978;51:302â€10.

Sinhuber RO, Yu TC, Yu TC. Characterization of the red pigment formed in the thiobarbituric acid determination of oxidative rancidity. Food Res 1958;23:626-30.

Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974;47:469-74.

Beers RF Jr, Sizer IW. A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem 1952;195:133-40.

Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 1967;70:158-69.

Pinto RE, Bartley W. The effect of age and sex on glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities and on aerobic glutathione oxidation in rat liver homogenates. Biochem J 1969;112:109-15.

Nayak P. Prooxidative and antioxidative intervention of aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. PhD Thesis. Chettinad Academy of Research and Education; 2014.

Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica; 2001. Available from: http://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/issue1_01.htm. [Last accessed on 20 Sep 2016]

Aan GJ, Sarmugam AS, Karim NA. Effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on synpatogenic molecules in aging caenorhbdis elegans. Int J Biomed Advan Res 2015;6:36-42.

Hayes KC, Pronczuk A, Liang JS. Differences in the plasma transport and tissue concentrations of tocopherols and tocotrienols: observations in human and hamsters. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;202:353-9.

Kawakami Y, Tsuzuki T, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T. Distribution of tocotrienols in rats fed a rice bran tocotrienol concentrate. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007;71:464-71.

Selvaraju TR, Khaza'ai H, Vidyadaran S, Abd Mutalib MS, Vasudevan R. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha-tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes. Bosnian J Basic Med Sci 2014;14:195-204.

Sue-Mian T, Ngah WZW, Top GM, Mazlan M. Comparison of the effects of ï¡-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol against oxidative stress in two different neuronal cultures. Sains Malaysiana 2010;39:145-56.

Tiwari V, Arora V, Chopra K. Attenuation of NF-κβ mediated apoptotic signalling by tocotrienol ameliorates cognitive deficits in rats postnatally exposed to ethanol. Neurochem Int 2012;61:310-20.

Dasari P, Anandamurali R, Nayak P. Tocotrienol opposes the effect of light to moderate ethanol exposures in elevated plus maze performances of rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:1-6.

Radhakrishnan A, Tudawe D, Chakravarthi S, Chiew GS, Haleagrahara N. Effect of γ-tocotrienol in counteracting oxidative stress in joint damage in collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Exp Ther Med 2014;7:1408-14.

Budin SK, Taib IS, Jayusman PA, Chiang HH, Ramalingam A, Ghazali AR, et al. Ameliorative effect of the palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction on brain oxidative stress in fenitrothion-administered rats. Sains Malays 2014;43:1031-6.

Jubri Z, Latif AA, Top AGM, Ngah WZW. Oxidative status of cigarette smokers with tocotrienol rich fraction supplementation. Middle-East J Sci Res 2014;21:897-904.

Matough FA, Budin SB, Hamid ZA, Louis SR, Alwahaibi N, Mohamed J. Plam vitamin E reduces oxidative stress and physical and morphological alterations of erythrocyte membranes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oxid Antoxid Med Sci 2012;1:59-68.



How to Cite

Dasari, P., A. R., and P. Nayak. “EFFECT OF TOCOTRIENOL PRETREATMENT ON EX VIVO SUPEROXIDE AND PEROXIDE HANDLING CAPACITIES (SPHC) OF RAT SERUM AND BRAIN”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, Mar. 2017, pp. 116-22, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i3.15866.



Original Article(s)