DIRECT SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ATENOLOL AND TIMOLOL ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUGS
Keywords:Atenolol, Timolol, Dosage forms, Spectrophotometry, Potassium permanganate
Objective: Direct and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the quantitative determination of some anti-hypertensive drugs such as atenolol (ATN) and timolol (TIM) in pure forms as well as in their dosage forms.
Methods: The proposed method is based on the redox reaction between the selected drugs and KMnO4 in alkaline medium. The method involves treating the aqueous solution of the selected drugs with KMnO4 in alkaline medium and measuring the bluish-green product at 610 nm. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the color were carefully studied and optimized.
Results: The fixed-time method is adopted for constructing the calibration curves, which were found to be linear over the concentration ranges of 2.0â€“14 mg/ml and 2.0â€“28 mg/ml for ATN and TIM, respectively. The determination of the studied drugs by initial rate, variable time and rate constant method was workable with the calibration equations obtained but the fixed time method has been found to be more applicable.
Conclusion: The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by the determination of the selected drugs in both pure and in commercial dosage forms and has met the validation requirements.
Paterson JW. Citation classic-the pharmacodynamics and metabolism of propranolol in man. Current contents/clinical practice; 1982. p. 20.
Reynolds JEF. Ed. Martindale; Extra Pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. The Pharmaceutical Press: London; 1982. p. 1337.
The Indian Pharmacopoeia. 4th ed. The controller of publications, the ministry of health and family welfare, Government of India, New Delhi; 1996. p. 72.
The British Pharmacopoeia. Vol. I. Her Majestyâ€™s Stationery Office, London; 1988. p. 49.
El-Gindy A, Emara S, Mostafa A. HPLC and chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of atenolol, amiloride hydrochloride and chlorthalidone. IL Farmaco 2005;60:269â€“78.
Elgawish MS, Mostafa SM, Elshanawane AA. Simple and rapid HPLC method for simultaneous determination of atenolol and chlorthalidone in spiked human plasma. Saudi Pharm J 2011;19:43â€“9.
El-Gindy A, Sallam S, Abdelâ€“Salam RA. HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of atenolol and chlorthalidone in human breast milk. J Sep Sci 2008;31:677â€“82.
Spanakis M, Niopas I. Determination of atenolol in human plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection: validation and application in a pharmacokinetic study. J Chromatogr Sci 2013;51:128â€“32.
Neelima MS, Gandhi BM, Raju VB, Sumanth KS, Srinivas K, Mounika P, et al. Development and validation of stability indicating a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous estimation of atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and losartan in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:118â€“24.
Yilmaz B. Determination of atenolol in pharmaceutical preparations by gas chromatography with flame ionisation and mass spectrometric detection. Anal Lett 2010;43:2311â€“7.
Kannappan V, Mannemala SS. Simultaneous enantioseparation and purity determination of chiral switches of amlodipine and atenolol by liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016;120:221â€“7.
Lawson G, Cocks E, Tanna S. Quantitative determination of atenolol in dried blood spot samples by LCâ€“HRMS: a potential method for assessing medication adherence. J Chromatogr B 2012;897:72â€“9.
Sartori ER, Medeiros RA, Rocha-Filho RC, Fatibello-Filho O. Square-wave voltammetric determination of propranolol and atenolol in pharmaceuticals using a boron-doped diamond electrode. Talanta 2010;81:1418â€“24.
Goyal RN, Singh SP. Voltammetric determination of atenolol at C60-modified glassy carbon electrodes. Talanta 2006; 69:932â€“7.
Goyal RN, Gupta VK, Oyama M, Bachheti N. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations and urine using nanogold modified indium tin oxide electrode. Electrochem Commun 2006;8:65â€“70.
Zzam KA, Elbashir AA, Elbashir MA, Saad B, Hamid SA. Simultaneous determination of atenolol and chlorthalidone in pharmaceutical preparations by capillary-zone electrophoresis. Anal Lett 2009;42:1458â€“70.
Xu L, Guo Q, Yu H, Huang J, You T. Simultaneous determination of three Î²-blockers at a carbon nanofiber paste electrode by capillary electrophoresis coupled with amperometric detection. Talanta 2012;97:462â€“7.
Wang Y, Wu Q, Cheng M, Cai C. Determination of Î²-blockers in pharmaceutical and human urine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection and studies on the pharmacokinetics. J Chromatogr B 2011;879:871â€“7.
Li D, Du J, Lu J. Chemiluminescence determination of atenolol in biological fluids by a europium-sensitized permanganate-sulfite system. Microchim Acta 2008;161:169â€“73.
Al-arfaj NA, Al-Abdulkareem EA, Aly FA. Determination of enalapril maleate and atenolol in their pharmaceutical products and in biological fluids by flow-injection chemiluminescence. Luminescence 2009;24:422â€“8.
Basan H, YarÄ±mkaya S. A novel solid-phase extractionâ€“spectrofluorimetric method for the direct determination of atenolol in human urine. Luminescence 2014;29:225â€“9.
Thomas A, Patankar M, Deshmukh KR, Kothapalli L, Jangam S, Patankar PR, et al. Simultaneous spectrophotometric estimation of losartan potassium and atenolol in bulk and two component formulation. Asian J Chem 2007;19:3721â€“6.
Basavaiah K, Chandrashekar U, Nagegowda P. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromateâ€“bromide and methyl orange. J Serb Chem Soc 2006;71:553â€“63.
Prashanth KN, Basavaiah K. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations using the bromate-bromide mixture as an Eco-friendly brominating agent. J Anal Methods Chem 2012;2012:1â€“12.
Al-Ghannam SM. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of Î²-blockers in dosage forms. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2006;40:151â€“6.
Prashanth kN, Basavaiah K, Abdulrahman SAM, Rajendraprasad N, Vinay BK. Application of bromated-bromide mixture as a green brominating agent for the spectrophotometric determination of arenolol in pharmaceuticals. Chem Ind Chem Eng Q 2012;18:43â€“52.
Prashanth KN, Basavaiah K. Simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of atenolol in pharmaceuticals through charge transfer complex formation reaction. Acta Poloniae Pharm 2012;69:213â€“23.
Nnadi CO, Obonga WO, Ogbonna JDN, Ugwu LO. Development of vanadometric system for spectrophotometric determination of timolol in pure and dosage forms. Trop J Pharm Res 2015;14:2223-9.
Ayad MM, Shalaby A, Abdellatef HE, Hosny MM. Spectrophotometric methods for determination of enalapril and timolol in bulk and in drug formulations. Anal Bioanal Chem 2003;375:556â€“60.
Lotfy HM, Hegazy MA, Rezk MR, Omran YR. Novel spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of timolol and dorzolamide in their binary mixture. Spectrochim Acta A 2014;126:197â€“207.
Rizk MS, Merey HA, Tawakkol SM, Sweilam MN. Simultaneous determination of timolol maleate and brimonidine tartrate in their pharmaceutical dosage form. Anal Chem Lett 2014;4:132â€“45.
Hassib ST, Elkady EF, Sayed RM. Simultaneous determination of timolol maleate in combination with some other anti-glaucoma drugs in rabbit aqueous humor by high-performance liquid chromatographyâ€“tandem mass spectroscopy. J Chromatogr B 2016;1022:109â€“17.
Hamdan II, Qurani H. Development and validation of a HPLC method for determination of potential residual cortisone compounds in timolol maleate eye drops. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 2008;32:449â€“67.
Boiero C, Allemandi D, Longhi M, Llabot JM. RP-HPLC method development for the simultaneous determination of timolol maleate and human serum albumin in albumin nanoparticles. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2015;111:186â€“9.
Rizk MS, Merey HA, Tawakkol SM, Sweilam MN. Development and validation of a stability-indicating micellar liquid chromatographic method for the determination of timolol maleate in the presence of its degradation products. J Chromatogr Sci 2015;53:503â€“10.
Du J, Quan J, Wang Y. Chemiluminescence determination of timolol maleate by gold nanoparticles-catalyzed luminolâ€“N-bromosuccinimide system. Talanta 2012;90:117â€“22.
Maguregui MI, JimÑnez RM, Alonso RM, Akesolo U. Quantitative determination of oxprenolol and timolol in urine by capillary zone electrophoresis. J Chromatogr 2002;949:91â€“7.
United States Pharmacopoeia. 24th Rev. National Formulary, United States Pharmacopeial Convention. 2000. p. 638.
British Pharmacopoeia. HM Stationery Office, London; 1993. p. 641, 692.
Miller JC, Miller JN. Significance tests in statistics for analytical chemistryâ€, 3rd ed. Chap. 3. Hardwood, Chichester; 1993.
Rose J. Advanced Physicochemical Experiments, Pitman, London; 1964. p. 67.
Weisberger A, Friess SL, Lewis ES. In: Techniques of Organic Chemistry, Part I. Vol. III. Interscience, New York; 1953.