• P. Geetha Department of Biotechnology, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029, Tamil Nadu, India
  • B. Lakshman Kumar Department of Biotechnology, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029, Tamil Nadu, India
  • U. Indra Department of Biotechnology, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029, Tamil Nadu, India
  • B. Pavithra Sheetal Department of Biotechnology, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641029, Tamil Nadu, India



Colitis, 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[A]anthracene, Macroscopic scoring, Gavage intubation and scoring pattern


Objective: Ulcerative colitis known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. We examined the antioxidant and myeloperoxidase status in a murine model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced colitis to elucidate the exact mechanism behind the inflammation.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to ulcerative colitis using various concentration of DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]anthracene) were periodically analysed on 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th and 32nd week from the date of induction. To determine the disease activity index changes in body weight, food consumption, the presence of gross blood in stool and consistency of feces and diarrhea were observed. Macroscopic characters were elucidated based on clinical features of the colon and rectum using scoring pattern. Tissue inflammation status was noted through myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. The antioxidant status in tissue samples was analysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total reduced glutathione (GSH).

Results: Gavage intubation of DMBA induced colitis showed significant changes from 4th week and severity on 32nd week. The body weight was gradually reduced. Macroscopic scoring showed severe scoring pattern the inflammation was significantly heavier by week 4; and by the end of 32 w, inflammation in rats was double that of the controls, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity showed the steady increase of neutrophil infiltration and inflammation rate every week. A significant change was noted in tissue antioxidant status and it showed the oxidation level. Statistically, significant change was recorded from 4th week till 32nd week.

Conclusion: The conventional biochemical changes in colitis induced animal model revealed the association between the oxidative stress and ulcerative colitis.


Download data is not yet available.


Molodecky NA, Kaplan GG. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 6:339–4.

Sunyoung L, Michael C, Ilnaz S, Raghav B. Immune-mediated adalimumab-induced thrombocytopenia for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:456-8.

Shi XZ, Winston JH, Sarna SK. Differential immune and genetic responses in rat models of Crohn’s colitis and ulcerative colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2011;300:41–51.

Ng SC, Tang W, Ching JY, Wong M, Chow CM, Hui AJ, et al. Incidence and phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease based on results from the asia-pacific crohn’s and colitis epidemiology study. Gastroenterology 2013;145:158–65.

Wilson J, Hair C, Knight R, Catto-Smith A, Bell S, Kamm M, et al. High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia: a prospective population-based Australian incidence study. Inflammatory Bowel Dis 2010;16:1550–6.

Gearry RB, Richardson A, Frampton CM, Collett JA, Burt MJ, Chapman BA, et al. High incidence of Crohn’s disease in Canterbury, New Zealand: results of an epidemiologic study. Inflammatory Bowel Dis 2006;12:936–43.

Thia KT, Loftus EV Jr, Sandborn WJ, Yang SK. An update on the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:3167–82.

Molodecky NA, Soon IS, Rabi DM, Ghali WA, Ferris M, Chernoff G, et al. Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. J Gastroenterol 2012;142:46–54.

Rezaie A, Parker RD, Abdollahi M. Oxidative stress and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease: an epiphenomenon or the cause? Dig Dis Sci 2007;52:2015-21.

Chen FA, Wu AB, Shieh P, Kuo DH, Hsieh CY. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Ruellia tuberosa. Food Chem 2006;94:14-8.

Karp SM, Koch TR. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in inflammatory bowel disease. Dis Mon 2006;52:199-07.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free radicals in biology and medicine. 4th ed. Clarendon Press; 2007.

Robinson EE, Maxwell SR, Thorpe GH. An investigation of the antioxidant activity of black tea using enhanced chemiluminescence. Free Radical Res 1997;26:291-302.

Poli G, Biasi F, Chiarpotto E. Oxidative stress and cell signalling. Curr Med Chem 2004;11:1163-82.

Chen Q, Vazquez EJ, Moghaddas S, Hoppel CL, Lesnefsky EJ. Production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria: the central role of complex III. J Biol Chem 2003;278:36027-31.

Liu W, Guo QL, You QD, Zhao L, Gu HY, Yuan ST. Anticancer effect and apoptosis induction of gambogic acid in human gastric cancer line BGC-823. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:3655-9.

Papas AM. Determinants of antioxidant status in humans. Lipids 1996;31:77-82.

Sies H. Antioxidants in disease, mechanisms and therapy. 1st ed. Academic Press; 1996.

Chandra M, Chandra N, Agrawal R, Kumar A, Ghatak A, Pandey VC. The free radical system in ischemic heart disease. Int J Cardiol 1994;43:121-5.

Kalaimathi J, Suresh K. Sinapic acid attenuates 7,12-dimethylbenz[A] anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis by improving the apoptotic-associated gene expression in hamsters. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015,8:228-33.

Tsang SW, Ip SP, Wu JC, Ng SC, Yung KK, Bian ZX. A Chinese medicinal formulation ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis by suppressing the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B signalling. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;162:20–30.

Thippeswamy BS, Mahendran S, Biradar MI, Raj P, Srivastava K, Badami S, et al. Protective effect of embelin against acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2011;654:100–5.

Krawisz JE, Sharon P, Stenso WF. Qualitative assay for acute intestinal inflammation based on myeloperoxidase activity. Gastroenterology 1984;87:1344–50.

Das S, Vasight S, Snehlata R, Das N, Srivastava LM. Correlation between total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemia. Curr Sci 2000;78:486-7.

Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 1972;47:389-94.

Ellman GC. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 1959;82:70-7.

Moron MS, Defierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochem Biophys Acta 1979;582:67-8.

Kondamudi PK, Kovelamudi H, Mathew G, Nayak PG, Rao MC, Shenoy RR. Investigation of sesamol on myeloperoxidase and colon morphology in acetic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disorder in albino rats. Sci World J 2014;80270:1-7.

Millar AD, Rampton DS, Chander CL, Claxson AW, Blades S, Coumbe A, et al. Evaluating the antioxidant potential of new treatments for inflammatory bowel disease using a rat model of colitis. Gut 1996;39:407–15.

Harry R. Synergistic mechanisms in carcinogenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and by tobacco smoke a bio-historical perspective with updates. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:1903–30.

Frankel K, Wei L, Wei H. 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induces oxidative DNA modifications in vivo. Free Radical Boil Med 1995;19:373-80.

Muqbil I, Azmi AS, Banu N. Prior exposure to restraint stress enhances 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced DNA damage in rats. FEBS Lett 2006;580:3995–9.

Levy E, Rizwan Y, Thibault L, Lepage G, Brunet S, Bouthillier L, et al. Altered lipid profile, lipoprotein composition, and oxidant and antioxidant status in pediatric Crohn disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:807–15.

El-Abhar HS, Hammad L, Gawad HSA. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118:367–72.

Choudhary S, Keshavarzian A, Yong M, Wade M, Bocckino S, Day BJ, et al. Novel antioxidants zolimid and AEOL11201 ameliorate colitis in rats. Dig Dis Sci 2001;46:2222–30.

Manoharan S, Kolanjiappan K, Suresh K, Panjamurty K. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Indian J Med Res 2005;122:529-34.

Kruidenier L, Verspaget HW. Review article: oxidative stress as a pathogenic factor in inflammatory bowel disease radicals or ridiculous? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1997–15.

Buffinton GD, Doe WF. Depleted mucosal antioxidant defences in inflammatory bowel disease. Free Radical Biol Med 1995;19:911–8.

Cetinkaya A, Bulbuloglu E, Kurutas EB, Ciralik H, Kantarceken B, Buyukbese MA. Beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Tohoku J Exp Med 2005;206:131–9.

Dryden GW Jr, Deaciuc I, Arteel G, McClain CJ. Clinical implications of oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2005;7:308–16.



How to Cite

Geetha, P., B. L. Kumar, U. Indra, and B. P. Sheetal. “ 12-DIMETHYLBENZ [A] ANTHRACENE INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODEL: EVIDENCE FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN ACTIVE ULCERATIVE COLITIS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, Mar. 2017, pp. 282-6, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i3.16485.



Original Article(s)