• Pritha Das Nutritional Biochemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, West Tripura 799022
  • Sudipta Pal Nutritional Biochemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, West Tripura 799022



Lead acetate, Dose-dependent study, Glycogenolysis, Glycolysis, Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle


Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of sub-acute lead exposure on certain aspects of carbohydrate metabolism.

Methods: Swiss albino male mice (weighing 30-35 g) were selected for the present study and divided into five groups; one control group and others lead-treated groups i.e. Group A (5 mg/kg body weight), Group B (10 mg/kg body weight), Group C (15 mg/kg body weight) and Group D (20 mg/kg body weight). Parameters like blood and liver glucose, glycogen and pyruvic acid contents were determined in liver tissue. The enzyme activities like pyruvate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phosphatase were recorded in that tissue. Additionally, free amino acid nitrogen content and transaminase enzyme activities were also evaluated in liver tissue of mice.

Results: The study reveals that lead caused a significant diminution of blood and hepatic glucose levels and fall in liver glycogen content in a dose-dependent manner, the highest effect was observed in animals treated with lead at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Glucose 6-phosphatase activity was decreased significantly in all the treated groups. There was a dose-dependent increase in pyruvic acid content whereas pyruvate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and transaminase enzyme activities were significantly depressed in a dose-dependent fashion in all the treated animals. Additionally, lead treatment significantly (p<0.001) enhanced free amino acid nitrogen in the liver to provide a substrate for gluconeogenesis.

Conclusion: It is suggested that an adaptive mechanism is initiated by stimulating and retarding glycogenolytic and glycolytic activity and also by rising in the content of free amino acid nitrogen to recover from the lead stressed toxic manifestation


Download data is not yet available.


Fischbein A. Occupational and environmental lead exposure. In: Rom WN, editor. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2nded. Boston: Little Brown; 1992. p. 735-58.

Barbosa F, Tanus-Santos JE, Gerlach RF, Parsons PJ. A critical review of biomarkers used for monitoring human exposure to lead: advantages, limitations, and future needs. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:1669-74.

Mudipalli A. Lead hepatotoxicity and potential health effects. Indian J Med Res 2007;126:518-27.

Baranowska-B I, Kosińska I, Jamioł D, Gutowska I, Prokopowicz A, Rębacz-Maron E, et al. , Environmental lead (pb) exposure versus fatty acid content in blood and milk of the mother and in the blood of newborn children. Biol Trace Elem Res 2015;170:279-87.

Ghosh D, Firdaus SB, Mitra E, Dey M, Bandyopadhyay D. Protective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya koenigi against lead induced oxidative stress in rat liver, heart and kidney: a dose-response study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:54-8.

Mahrous KF, Alakilli SY, Khalil WK. The protective effect of thymoquinone against lead acetate induced DNA damage and alterations in tumor initiation genes. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:302-8.

Kilikdar D, Mukherjee D, Mitra E, Ghosh AK, Basu A, Chandra AM, et al. Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against lead-induced hepatic injury in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2011;49:498-10.

Bharali MK. Effect of acute lead acetate exposure on liver of mice. J Glob Biosci 2013;2:121-5.

Mehana EE, Meki AR, Fazili KM. Ameliorated effects of green tea extract on lead induced liver toxicity in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2012;64:291-5.

Ghosh S, Chetterjee AK, Gupta M. Impact of lead toxicity in brain metabolisms of nucleic acid and catecholamine in protein malnourished rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1992;38:451-2.

Khallaf EA, Authman M. A study of some reproduction characters of Bagrus bayad, forskal. Bahr Shebeen Canal J Egyp Ger Soc Zool 1991;4:123-38.

Barham D, Trinder P. An improved colour reagent for the determination of blood glucose by the oxidase system. Analyst 1972;97:142-5.

Montgomery R. Determination of glycogen. Arch Biochem Biophys 1957;67:378-86.

Plummer DT. An introduction to practical biochemistry. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill; 1988. p. 236-8.

Segal S, Blair AE, Wyngaarden JB. An enzymatic spectrophotometric method for the determination of pyruvic acid in the blood. J Lab Clin Med 1956;48:137-43.

Liu X, Bisswanger H. Practical enzymology. Biol Chem 2005;386:11-8.

Sordahl LA, Johnson C, Blailock ZR, Schwartz A. The mitochondrion. In: Schwartz A. editor. Methods in pharmacology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1971. p. 247-86.

Mehler AH, Kornberg A, Grisolia S, Ochoa S. The enzymatic mechanism of oxidation-reductions between malate or isocitrate or pyruvate. J Biol Chem 1948;174:961-77.

Rosen H. A modified ninhydrin colorimetric analysis for amino acids. Arch Biochem Biophys 1957;67:10-5.

Reitman S, Frankel S. Colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1975;28:56-3.

Marchlewicz M, Wiszniewska B, Gonet B, Baranowska BI, Safranow K, Kolasa A. Increased lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid utilization in testis and epididymis of mice chronically exposed to lead. Biometals 2006;20:13-9.

Cezard C, Haguenoer JM. Technique et documentation. In: Toxicologie du plomb chez l’Homme. Paris: Lavoisier; 1992. p. 172-3.

Vallee BL, Ulmer DD. Biochemical effects of mercury, cadmium and lead. Ann Rev Biochem 1972;41:91-28.

Authman MMN. Environmental and experimental studies of aluminium toxicity on the liver of Oreochromis niloticus (linnaeus, 1758) Fish. Life Sci 2011;8:764-76.

Allouche L, Hamadouche M, Touabti A, Khennouf S. Effect of long-term exposure to low or moderate lead concentrations on growth, lipid profile and liver function in albino rats. Adv Biol Res 2011;5:339-47.

Roxburgh RC, Haas L. The diagnostic importance of glycosuria in lead poisoning in childhood. Arch Dis Child 1959;34:70-3.

Rastogi SK. Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2008;12:103-6.

Afsar S. Glucose post-exposure recovery from lead intoxicated freshwater fish Anabas testudineus. Int Biomed Adv Res 2012;3:59-3.

Whittle E, Singhal RL, Colins M, Hrdina PD. Effects of subacute low-level lead exposure on glucose homeostasis. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1983;40:141-54.

Rani EF, Elumalai M, Balasubramanian MP. Effect of mixtures of pesticide and fertilizer on carbohydrates, protein, phosphor-monoesterases and non-specific esterases in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). Natl Acad Sci Lett (India) 1999;22:70-4.

Chaudry HS, Nath K. Effect of nickel intoxication on liver glycogen of a freshwater teleost, Colisa fasciatus. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 2006;13:245-8.

Gardner LB, Liu Z, Barret EJ. The role of glucose-6-phosphatase in the action of insulin on hepatic glucose production in the rat. Diabetes 1993;42:1614-20.

Rizwana S, Naqshbandi A, Farooqui Z, Khan AA, Khan F. Protective effect of dietary faxseed oil on arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney. Food Chem Toxicol 2014;68:99-07.

Frederic HM, Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. 7th International Ed, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2006.

Raj Kumar T, Rangappa A, Reddy MS. Evaluation of changes in intermediary metabolites of carbohydrates in tissues of freshwater fish Channa punctatus during exposure to phosalone toxicity. J Aqua Biol 2008;23:147-9.

Regunathan S, Sundaresan R. Pyruvate metabolism in the brain of young rats intoxicated with organic and inorganic lead. J Neurochem 1984;43:1346-51.

Shah NAM, Nitisewojo P. Mercury-selenium and cadmium-selenium interaction on mitochondrial function. Proc Malvas Bioche Soc Cont 1977;4:87-4.

Sharma S, Goloubinoff P, Christen P. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding. Biochem Biophys Res Commu 2008;372:341-5.

Rao Sambasiva KRS. Pesticide impact on fish metabolism. Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi: India; 1999. p. 129-49.

Naveed A, Janaiah C, Venkateshwarlu P. The effects of lihocin toxicity on Protein metabolism of the freshwater edible fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). J Toxicol Environ Health Sci 2010;3:18-23.

Abdou HM, Newairy AA. Hepatic and reproductive toxicity of lead in female rats and attenuation by flaxseed lignans. J Med Res Inst 2006;27:295-302.

Hassoun EA, Stohs SJ. Comparative studies on oxidative stress as a mechanism for the fetotoxicity of TCDD endrin and lindane in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Teratology 1996;51:186.

Chowdhury P, Mahanta R. Hepatic transaminase activity in nandrolone decanoate treated albino mice. Int J Sci Res Publications 2014;4:1-5.

Krejpcio Z, Wójciak RW. The influence of al3+ions on pepsin and trypsin activity in vitro. Pol J Environ Stud 2002;11:251-4.



How to Cite

Das, P., and S. Pal. “ALTERATION IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM BY SUB-ACUTE LEAD EXPOSURE: A DOSE-DEPENDENT STUDY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, Mar. 2017, pp. 254-61, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i3.16491.



Original Article(s)