OPTIMIZATION OF FORMULATION OF FLOATING HYDROGELS CONTAINING GAS FORMING AGENT USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
Keywords:Floating hydrogels, Calcium carbonates, Kappa carrageenan, Sodium salt of carbomethylcellulose, Ranitidine hydrochloride, Optimization, Factorial design
Objective: The objective of present study was to determine the optimum gas forming agent concentration to enhance the floating ability and drug release pattern of floating hydrogels by using factorial design.
Methods: In this article calcium carbonates as gas forming agents was synthesized in modified floating kappa carrageenan hydrogels. Ranitidine Hydrochloride was used as drug. 32 full factorial design was utilized for the optimization of gas forming agents. Polymer ratio (X1) and calcium carbonates concentration (X2) were used as independent variables. The floating hydrogels were characterized and the results obtained are swelling ratio study, drug entrapment efficiency, floating lag time and cumulative drug release.
Results: From the factorial batches, it was observed that formulation containing 0.5% of calcium carbonates with 80:20 Æ™C: NaCMC showed the optimum floating properties, swelling ratio, drug entrapment efficiency and cumulative drug release.
Conclusion: Thus, formulation containing 0.5% of calcium carbonates with 80:20 Æ™C:NaCMC appear to be a potential approach to develop sustains drug release in gastrointestinal condition.
Chawla G, Gupta P, Koradia V, Bansal AK. Gastro retention:A means to address regional variability in intestinal drug absorption. J Pharm Tech 2003;27:50â€“68.
Bardonnet PL, Faivre V, Pugh WJ, Piffaretti JC, Falson F. Gastroretentive dosage forms:Overview and special case of Helicobacter pylori. J Controlled Release 2006;111:1â€“18.
Okunlolaa A, Odeku OA, Patelb RP. Formulation optimization of floating microbeads containing modified Chinese yam starch using factorial design. J Excipients and Food Chem 2012;3(1):17-25
Singh B, Kim K. Floating drug delivery systems:an approach to oral controlled drug delivery via gastric retention. J Controlled Release 2000;63:235â€“59.
Dolas TR, Hosmani A, Bhandari A, Kumar B, Somvanshi S. Novel sustained release gastroretentive drug delivery system:A Review. Int J Pharm Res and Develop 2011;2(11):26-41.
Meka VK, Nali SR, Songa AS, Battu JR, Kolapalli VR. Statistical optimization of a novel excipient(CMEC) based gastro retentive floating tabletsof Propranolol HCl and its in vivo buoyancycharacterization in healthy human volunteers. J Pharm Sci 2012;20:21
Box GPE, Wilson KB. On the experimental attainment of optimum conditions.J Royal Stat Soc Ser B 1951;13:1.
Jagdale SC, Ghorpade SA, Kuchekars BS, Chabukswar AR. Effect of polymer and gas forming agent on floating drug delivery of Tramadol Hydrochloride using response surface methodology:in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm Appl 2011;2(3):181-94.
Nijenhuis KT. Carrageenans In:Thermoreversible Networks. Springer, Berlin, 1997;203â€“52.
Zhai M, Zhang Y, Ren J, Yi M, Ha H, Kennedy JF. Intelligent hydrogels based on radiation induced copolymerization of N isopropylacrylamide and kappacarrageenan. Carbohydr Polym 2004;58:35â€“39.
Hezaveh H, Muhamad II. The effect of nanoparticles on gastrointestinal release from modified ï¡-carrageenan nanocomposite hydrogels. Carbohydr Polym 2012;89:138â€“ 45.
De Silva DA, Hettiarachchr BU, Nayanajith LDC, Yoga Milani MD, Motha JTS. Sci Foundation Sri Lanka 2011;39:25.
Daniel-Da-Silva AL, Lopes AB, Gil AM, Correia RN. J Mater Sci 2007;42:8581.
Hezaveh H, Muhamad II. Impact of metal oxide nanoparticles on oral release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogel nanocomposites. Int J Biol Macromol 2012;50:1334-40
Sannino A, Demitri C, Madaghiele M. Biodegradable cellulose-based hydrogels:Design and applications. Materials 2009;2:353â€“73.
Somade S, Singh K. Comparative evaluation of wet granulation and direct compression methods for preparation of controlled release Ranitidine HCL tablets. Indian J Pharm Sci 2002;64:285.
Ranitidine tablets, USP, package insert
Rosa M, Zia H, Rhodes T. Dosing and testing in-vitro of a bioadhesive and floating drug delivery system for oral application. Int J Pharm 1994;105:65â€“70.
Chen Y-C, Ho H-O, Lee T-Y, Sheu M-T. Physical characterizations and sustained release profiling of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with improved floating and swelling capabilities. Int J Pharm 2013;441(1-2):162-9.
Yellanki SK, Neralla NK. Stomach specific drug delivery of Riboflavin using floating alginate beads. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2 Suppl 2:160-3.