• Shrinivas S. Jadhav Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Department of PG Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India 580003
  • David M Department of higher studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad




Earthworm, Acetylcholinesterase, Flubendiamide, Enzyme kinetics, Avoidance behaviour, Eudrilus eugeniae


Objective: Flubendiamide is extensively used in agriculture practices as foliar application pesticide. Due to long persistency in the soil, flubendiamide pose serious health concern in non-target organisms. Our main objective was to examine flubendiamide impact on burrowing animal Eudrilus eugeniae with special emphasis on avoidance behaviour and neurotoxicity.

Methods: Acute toxicity study of flubendiamide (Diamide pesticide) was conducted on earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae through direct paper contact method and artificial soil method. Median lethal concentration (LC50) of flubendiamide was calculated by following probit analysis. The neurotoxic potential of flubendiamide was studied with marker enzyme Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) levels in both In vivo and In vitro experiments.

Results: LC50 in earthworms was found to be 94.4 µg cm-2 at 48h paper contact test and 332.21 mg kg-1and 238.31 mg kg-1 respectively at 7 and 14 d artificial soil exposure. Morphological and physiological alterations in earthworms attribute to inhibition of AChE levels. The kinetic study of AChE activity in presence and absence of inhibitor suggests the enzyme reaction is competitive in nature.

Conclusion: Present study establishes concentration-dependent flubendiamide toxicity in earthworm E. eugeniae. No clear conclusive remarks were made on earthworm avoidance behaviour as the worms were located both in toxic and control soil after 48h of exposure. Further studies may be needed in this aspect to establish clear understanding on avoidance nature of E. eugeniae in different soil types. 


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How to Cite

Jadhav, S. S., and D. M. “EFFECT OF FLUBENDIAMIDE ON MORPHOLOGY, AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOUR AND ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN EARTHWORM EUDRILUS EUGENIAE”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 9, Sept. 2017, pp. 233-8, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i9.20684.



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