EFFECT OF HEAT AND FILTER STERILIZATION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF COLEUS AROMATICUS AS AN ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT AGAINST DIABETIC WOUND PATHOGENS
Keywords:Coleus aromaticus, Wound pathogens, disc diffusion, Minimumm inhibitory concentration, Minimum bactericidal concentration, Time kill assay, Heat sterilization, Filter sterilization
Objective: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the efficiency of Coleus aromaticus on eradicating diabetic wound pathogens.
Methods: The investigation was explored by deploying disc diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and time kill studies on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis.
Results: Zone of inhibition was 17.5-27.0 mm for unsterilized extract, 11.0-20.0 mm for heat sterilized extract and 6.0-12.0 mm for filter sterilized extract. MIC ranged from 1.02-2.60 mg/ml for unsterilized extract, 2.60-5.21 mg/ml for heat sterilized extract and 8.33-18.75 mg/ml for filter sterilized extract. MBC ranged from 2.60-8.33 mg/ml for unsterilized extract and much higher values were noted with heat and filter sterilized extract. Time kill assay showed log reduction of more than 3 in 2 x MIC unsterilized extract on microorganisms tested. Both heat and filter sterilized extract didn't show 3 log or more reduction even at 2 x MIC. However, better log reduction was observed in heat sterilized extract compared to filter sterilized extract.
Conclusion: C. aromaticus is a potent antibacterial agent and heat sterilization could be used to prepare this agent pharmaceutically. The evaluation on the effect of other sterilization methods on its efficiency as an antimicrobial wound remedy is highly suggested.
Maria Polikandrioti, Helen Dokoutsidou. The role of exercise and nutrition in type II Diabetes mellitus management. H Sci J 2009;3(4):216-21.
Muralitharan Nair. Diabetes mellitus, part 1: physiology and complications. Br J Nursing 2007;16(3):184-6.
Parveen Kumar, Michael Clark. Diabetes mellitus and other disorders of metabolism. In: Parveen Kumar, Michael Clark Clinical Medicine. 8th ed. United Kingdom: Elsevier Science Limited; 2012. p. 1069-1100
Tobias Hirsch, Malte Spielmann, Baraa Zuhaili, Till Koehler, Magdalena Fossum, Hans-Ulrich Steinau, et al. Enhanced susceptibility to infections in a diabetic wound healing model. BMC Surgery 2008;8(5):1-8.
Ekta Bansal, Ashish Garg, Sanjeev Bhatia, AK Attri, Jagdish Chander. Spectrum of microbial flora in diabetic foot ulcers. Indian J Microbiol Pathol 2008:51(2):204-8.
Benjamin A Lipsky, Christopher Hoey. Topical antimicrobial therapy for treating chronic wounds. Clin Pract 2009;49(2):1541-9.
Barry M. Charles. The Hazards of Modern Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.healthsavers.info/Hazards.Htm; 2006.
M Malini, G Abirami, V Hemalatha, G Annadurai. Antimicrobial activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of medicinal plants against waste water pathogens. Int J Res Pure Appl Microbiol 2013;3(2):40-2.
Rashmi Sahay Khare, Sourish Karmakar, Shanta Banerjee, Gopal Nath, Subir Kundu, Kanika Kundu. Uropathogen resistance essential oils of coleus aromaticus and ocimum sanctum. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011;2(8):2168-72.
Amar Deep Shukla, Tarun Agarwal, Angad Yadav. In Vitro Analysis of Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of coleus aromaticus. Int J App Bio Pharm Tech 2012;3(1):337-9.
R Annie Pritima, R Selvaraj Pandian. Antimicrobial activity of coleus aromaticus (benth) against microbes. Afr J Infect Diseases 2008;1(1):18-24.
Himesh Soni, Govind Nayak, Sita Sharan Patel, K Mishra, AK Singhai. Synergistic effect of polyherbal suspension of Punica granatum and Coleus aromaticus in evaluation of wound healing activity. J Herbal Med Toxicol 2011;5(1):111-5.
Roshan P, Naveen M, Manjul PS, Gulzar A, Anita S, Sudarshan S. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng: an overview. Pharm Res 2010;4(1):1-15.
KS Sunitha, MA Haniffa, M James Milton, Arthi Manju. Coleus aromaticus Benth act as an immunostimulant in Channa marulius. Int J Bio Tech 2010;1(2):55-9.
Anand K Jain, Ashish Dixit, Swaroop C Mehta. Wound healing activity of aqueous extract of leaves and roots of Coleus aromaticus in rats. Acta Pol Pharm Drug Res 2012;69(6):1119-23.
Prameela TS, Oommen P Saj. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antihelminthic studies on Coleus aromaticus Benth. Int J Pharm Res Dev 2011;3(4):93-103.
Preeja G Pillai, P Suresh, Gayatri Aggarwal, Gaurav Doshi, Vidhi Bhatia. Pharmacognostical standardization and toxicity profile of the methanolic leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. J App Pharm Sci 2011;1(2):75-81.
Yogita P, N Vishal Gupta, Natasha NS, Ashwini Nageen L, R Sudeendra Bhat. Comparison of quality requirements for sterile product manufacture as per indian gmp and USFDA. Res J Pharm Bio Chem Sci 2012;3(1):225-43.
SR Hashemi, I Zulkifli, Z Zunita, MN Somchit. The effect of selected sterilization methods on antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of herbal plants. J Bio Sci 2008;8(6):1072-6.
Chenielle Delahaye, Lois Rainford, Alison Nicholson, Sylvia Mitchell, John Lindo, Mohammed Ahmad. Antibacterial and antifungal analysis of crude extracts from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis. J Med Bio Sci 2009;3(1):1-7.
Gbonjubola O Adeshina, Akut Stephen, Josiah A Onaolapo, Joseph A Ehinmidu, Lilian E Odama. Effect of heat on the antimicrobial activity of Alchorneacordifolia leaf extracts. Int J App Sci Tech 2011;1(5):227-32.
Monica Cheesbrough. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 2nd ed. India: Cambridge University Press; 2006. p. 1-407.
Anju Dhiman, Arun Nanda, Sayeed Ahmad, B Narasimhan. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of PsidiumguajavaL. J Pharm Bio Allied Sci 2011;3(2):226-9.
Shyamapada Mandal, Manisha Deb Mandal, Nishith Kumar Pal. Antibacterial potential of Azadirachta indica seed and Bacopamonniera leaf extracts against multidrug resistant Salmonella entericaserovar Typhi isolates. Arch Med Sci 2007;1(1):14-8.
Igbeneghu Oluwatoyin Abimbola. The effect of autoclaving and membrane filtration on the antimicrobial activities of Alchorneacordifolia leaf extract. Glob Res J Microbiol 2014;4(1):6-9.
Conor T Hanrahan, Rainer Himmele, Jose A Diazâ€“Buxo. The challenges of heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis solutions: is there an alternative? Adv PD 2012;28(1):126-30.
Amy Proal. Understanding Biofilms. Retrieved from http://bacteriality.com/2008/05/26/biofilm/; 2008.
Susannah E Walsh, Stephen P Denyer. Filtration Sterilization. In: AP Fraise, J-Y Maillard, SA Sattar Principles, Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization. 5th ed. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013. p. 795-9.