• Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand
  • Kornkanok Ingkaninan Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand


Lymphocytes, Proliferation, Macrophages, Phagocytosis, Cytokines, Anti-inflammatory


Objectives: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of an acetone extract of T. bellerica fruit.

Methods: Mitogen induced-lymphocyte proliferation using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) technique, Th1- and Th2-related cytokine production by lymphocytes using ELISA and peritoneal macrophage function in ICR mice were assayed.

Results: The results show that the extract had a mild inhibitory effect on the generation of oxidase enzyme (Phagocytic Index 0.8, 100 mg/ml) but did not influence acid phosphatase enzyme function during phagocytosis. The extract stimulated the proliferation of both T and B lymphocytes. The maximal activation (Stimulation Index 3.2, 100 mg/ml) was presented with concanavalin A induction, indicating a major effect on T lymphocyte proliferation. The extract reduced the production of IFN-γ (89%, 100 mg/ml) and IL-2 (98%, 100 mg/ml) but increased IL-10 secretion (231%, 100 mg/ml) compared to concanavalin A. Gallic acid, a pharmacological component contained in this plant, presented a similar effect as that of T. bellerica extract and may contribute to the immunomodulatory activity of T. bellerica fruits in cooperation with other phytocompounds. The decrease in the IFN-g/IL-10 ratio indicated a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2-type response, which might lead to a treatment for Th1-mediated inflammatory immune diseases.

Conclusion: Our investigations show that the acetone extract of T. bellerica fruit possesses immunomodulatory activity, which could be used to explain its folklore applications and provide a pharmacological basis for its usefulness in immune-related disorders.


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How to Cite

Saraphanchotiwitthaya, A., and K. Ingkaninan. “IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF AN ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA BELLERICA ROXB FRUIT ON THE MOUSE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN VITRO”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 11, Nov. 2014, pp. 274-8,



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