• Haedar Abdulhafith Al-biati Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of pharmacy, University of Bagdad, Iraq
  • Ahmed Salih Sahib Department of Pharmacology, Al-kindy College of Medicine, University of Bagdad, Iraq
  • Sajida Hussein Ismail Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of pharmacy, University of Bagdad, Iraq


Type 2 DM, Obesity, Inflammation, Interleukin-6 (IL-6)


Objective: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity was increased world-wide as well as in Iraq. Inflammation plays important role in pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of the inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and BMI and lipid profile in obese type 2 diabetic Iraqi patients treated with metformin and glibenclamide.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Baquba Teaching Hospital, Diyala, Iraq; from January - April 2014. Fasting blood of glucose and insuline levels, lipid profile (S. cholesterol, S. triglyceride, and S. HDL), S. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein were determined in 30 subjects; 15 healthy control and 15 diabetic obese patients.

Results: There was statistically significant difference in BMI, fasting blood sugar, insulin resistance and lipid profile between obese diabetic and control group; inflammatory markers were also significantly elevated in diabetic obese patients compared to healthy control.

Conclusion: There is augmented inflammatory response in Iraqi diabetic obese patients which plays role in higher insu­lin resistance in these patients. Levels of inflammatory markers are increased and related to BMI and dyslipidemia in these patients.


Download data is not yet available.


Kolb H, Mandrup-Poulsen T. The global diabe¬tes epidemic as a consequence of lifestyle-in¬duced low-grade inflammation. Diabetologia 2010;53:10-20.

Kolb H, Mandrup-Poulsen T. An immune origin of type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia 2005;48:1038-50.

Glunds S, Krook A. Role of interleukin-6 sig¬naling in glucose and lipid metabolism. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2008;192:37-48.

Kristiansen OP, Mandrup-Poulsen T. Interleukin 6 and Diabetes: the Good, the Bad or the in¬different? Diabetes 2005;54:114-24.

Testa R, Olivieri F, Bonfigli AR, Sirolla C, Boemi M, Marchegiani F, et al. Interleukin 6-174G>C polymorphism affects the association between IL-6 plasma levels and insulin resis¬tance in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2006;71:299-305.

Hu FB, Meigs JB, Li TY, Rifai N, Manson JE. Inflammatory markers and risk of devel¬oping type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes 2004;53:693-700.

Jean-P, Mustapha M, Claire L, Min J. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw 2006;17(1):4-12.

Festa A, D’Agostino RJR, Howard G, Mykkanen L, Tracy RP, Haffner SM. Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 2000;102:42-7.

Frohlich M, Imhof A, Berg G. Association between C-reactive protein and features of themetabolic syndrome: a population-based study. Diabetes Care 2003;23:1835-9.

Sujata RM Sudha SD, Suresh DM. Role of adipocytokines in insulin resistance: studies from urban western indian population. Int J Diabetes Metab 2010;18:35-42.

Choi J, Joseph L, Pilote L. Obesity and C-reactive protein in various populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2013;14(3):232-44.

Pradhan AD, Cook NR, Buring JE. C-reactive protein is independently associated with fasting insulin in nondiabetic women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:650-5.

Wexler DJ, Hu FB, Manson JE. Mediating effects of inflammatory biomarkers on insulin resistance associated with obesity. Obes Res 2005;13:1772-3.

Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L, Nyyssönen K. C-reactive protein and the development of the metabolic síndrome and diabetes in middle-aged men. Diabetologia 2004;47:1403-10.

Gokulakrishan K, Mohanavalli KT, Monickaraj F, Mohan V, Balasubramanyam M. Subclinical inflammation/oxidation as revealed by altered gene expression profiles in subjects with im¬paired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes patients. Mol Cell Biochem 2009;324:173-81.

Hoene M, Weigert C. Role of interleukin-6 in insulin resistance, body fat distribution and en¬ergy balance. Obes Rev 2008;9:20-9.

Kristiansen OP, Mandrup-Poulsen T. Interleukin 6 and Diabetes: the Good, the Bad or the in¬different? Diabetes 2005;54:114-24.



How to Cite

Al-biati, H. A., A. S. Sahib, and S. H. Ismail. “EFFECTS OF METFORMIN AND GLIBENCLAIMIDE COMBINATION IN IRAQI OBESE PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 10, Oct. 2014, pp. 501-3, https://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/2933.



Original Article(s)