• PIANGPETCH TANNGOEN Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand,
  • Supaporn Lamlertthon Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
  • Waree Tiyaboonchai The Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Bangkok, Thailand




Alpha-mangostin, Citronella oil, Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes), Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Anti-acne


Objective: This study assessed the effects of alpha-mangostin (AM) and citronella oil (CO) working alone or in combination against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

Methods: The screening for antibacterial activity of AM and CO against P. acnes and S. aureus was carried out using the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of these two substances were determined using the broth microdilution method. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) of a combination of AM and CO were obtained by checkerboard dilution assay.

Results: The results showed that alpha-mangostin and citronella oil do indeed fight against P. acnes and S. aureus. The MICs and MBCs of AM against P. acnes and S. aureus were the same at 6.25 and 50 µg/ml, respectively. Both the MIC and the MBC of CO against P. acnes were 27.81µg/ml. The MIC and the MBC of CO against S. aureus were 112.13 and 224.25 µg/ml, respectively. The FICI of a combination of AM and CO against P. acnes and S. aureus were 2.00, indicating indifferent interaction with no additional inhibitory effect.

Conclusion: AM and CO are very effective against P. acnes and S. aureus, nevertheless their effect when used together was indifferent from using alone. Further research may find that either or both of these substances combined with yet a different natural agent could provide synergy againstP. acnes and S. aureus.


Download data is not yet available.


Eric J. Cosmetic formulation of skin care products/edited by Zoe Diana Draelos, Lauren A. Thaman. Cosmetic s. Zoe Diana Draelos LAT. editor. 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC; 2006. p. 251-71.

Krautheim A, Gollnick H. Acne: topical treatment. Clin Dermatol 2004;22:398–407.

Zaenglein AL, Graber EM, Thiboutot DM. Acne vulgaris and acneiform eruptions. Selda Pelin Kartal, Müzeyyen Gonul, editor. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 51000 Rijeka, Croatia: Croatia; 2017. p. 1-211.

Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, Dreno B, Finlay A, Leyden JJ, et al. Management of acne: a report from a global alliance to improve outcomes in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;49:S1-38.

Thiboutot D, Gollnick H, Bettoli V, Dreno B, Kang S, Leyden JJ, et al. New insights into the management of acne: an update from the global alliance to improve outcomes in acne group. J Am Acad Dermatol 2009;60:S1-49.

Cogen AL, Nizet V, Gallo RL. Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence. Br J Dermatol 2008;153:442–55.

Jeremy AH, Holland DB, Roberts SG, Thomson KF, Cunliffe WJ. Inflammatory events are involved in acne lesion initiation. J Invest Dermatol 2003;121:20–7.

Perry AL, Lambert PA. Propionibacterium acnes. Lett Appl Microbiol 2006;42:185–8.

Khorvash F, Abdi F, Kashani HH, Naeini FF, Narimani T. Staphylococcus aureus in acne pathogenesis: a case-control study. N Am J Med Sci 2012;4:573–6.

Fox L, Csongradi C, Aucamp M, Du Plessis J, Gerber M. Treatment modalities for acne. Molecules 2016;21:1–20.

Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W. Antimicrobial effects of thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;101:330–3.

Koh JJ, Qiu S, Zou H, Lakshminarayanan R, Li J, Zhou X, et al. Rapid bactericidal action of alpha-mangostin against MRSA as an outcome of membrane targeting. Biochim Biophys Acta-Biomembr Elsevier BV 2013;1828:834–44.

Khumsupan P, Gritsanapan W. Anti-acne activity of Garcinia mangostana L.: a review. Plant Sci Today 2014;1:147–50.

Larson RT, Lorch JM, Pridgeon JW, Becnel JJ, Clark GG, Lan Q. The biological activity of α-mangostin, a larvicidal botanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor. J Med Entomol 2010;47:249–57.

Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena KG, Dharmaratne HR. Antibacterial activity of α-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine 2005;12:203–8.

Lertsatitthanakorn P, Taweechaisupapong S, Arunyanart C, Aromdee C, Khunkitti W. Effect of citronella oil on time kill profile, leakage and morphological changes of Propionibacterium acnes. J Essent Oil Res 2010;22:270–4.

Suwanpugdee A, Saisornthip R, Sutthimusik S. The inhibitory efficiency of the essential oil from lemon grass and citronella grass on the growth of bovine mastitis pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli. Khon Kaen Agric J 2012;40:230–5.

Environmental Protection And Toxic Substances Agency. US EPA-Pesticides-The Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document for oil of Citronella. [Internet]. EPA’s National Center for Environmental Publications and Information (EPA/NCEPI). Washington, DC 20460; 1997. Available from: https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/reregistration/fs_PC-021901_1-Feb-97.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Jan 2019].

Afsar Z, Khanam S, Aravind Ram AS. Evaluation of synergistic anti-microbial efficacy of plant extracts and their formulation as topical agents. Int J Res Dev Pharm Lett Sci 2017;6:2779-85.

Pothitirat W, Chomnawang MT, Gritsanapan W. Anti-acne-inducing bacterial activity of mangosteen fruit rind extracts. Med Princ Pract 2010;19:281–6.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard-Ninth Edition M07-A9. In: CLSI document M07-A9; 2012. p. 1–63.

Klancnik A, Piskernik S, Jersek B, Mozina SS. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts. J Microbiol Methods 2010;81:121-6.

Athikomkulchai S, Watthanachaiyingcharoen R, Tunvichien S, Vayumhasuwan P, Karnsomkiet P, Sae-jong P, et al. The development of anti-acne products from materials and methods: plant materials test organisms culture methods. J Heal Res 2008;22:109-13.

Thathaisong U, Sangnual S. Synergistic effect of alpha-mangostin and gentamicin against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from king narai hospital. Burapha Sci J 2011;16:89–96.

Luangnarumitchai S, Lamlertthon S, Tiyaboonchai W. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against five strains of Propionibacterium acnes. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 2007;34:60-4.

Chin GS, Todo H, Kadhum WR, Hamid MA, Sugibayashi K. In vitro permeation and skin retention of α-mangostin proniosome. Chem Pharm Bull 2016;64:1666–73.

Sigma Aldrich Co LLC. Safety data sheet of geraniol 163333 [Internet]. Singapore 117528; 2016. Available from: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/MSDS/productNumber=163333. [Last accessed on 18 Dec 2018].



How to Cite

TANNGOEN, P., S. Lamlertthon, and W. Tiyaboonchai. “EFFECTS OF ALPHA-MANGOSTIN AND CITRONELLA OIL AGAINST ACNE CAUSING BACTERIA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 11, no. 6, June 2019, pp. 45-49, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2019v11i6.32927.



Original Article(s)