EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL AND BIOACTIVES OF A COSMECEUTICALLY SIGNIFICANT CHLORELLA EMERSONII KJ725233
ALTERATIONS IN CEK AS A RESPONSE TO GAMMA IRRADIATION
Keywords:Gamma irradiation, C emersonii KJ725233, Antioxidant, Vitamin E, Cosmeceutical
Objective : Gamma radiation induces free radicals with a corresponding alteration in the cell’s antioxidant defense system. The present study thus aimed at determining the role of gamma irradiation in improving the cosmeceutical potential of CEK in terms of antioxidants.
Methods : C.emersonii KJ725233 was subjected to low (100 Gy) and high (1000 Gy) gamma irradiation doses and its effect on the chlorophyll content was evaluated. The quantitative alterations in the antioxidant content of CEK were evaluated by phosphomolybdenum assay (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2, 2 - Dipheny-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH), total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Also, the corresponding qualitative alterations in the bioactives of CEK were determined by GC-HRMS analysis.
Results : A 179.57±2.55% increase in the total chlorophyll content alongwith a 71.76±2.96%, 32.08±2.16%, 11.67±0.89%, 42.85±8.0% and 31.37±3.18% increase was observed in the TAC, FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging, TPC and TFC was observed in CEK irradiated at 1000 Gy. GC-HRMS analysis revealed the induction of Vitamin E on irradiation at both the doses with a corresponding decrease in the phytol content whereas 100 Gy stimulated the induction of phytosterols.
Conclusion : The potent intrinsic antioxidant activity of cosmeceutically significant CEK can be elevated with the induction of the most sought after antioxidant in cosmetology – Vitamin E on irradiation.
Pancha I, Chokshi K, George B, Ghosh T, Paliwal C, Maurya R, et al. Nitrogen stress-triggered biochemical and morphological changes in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Bioresour Technol 2014;156:146–54.
Gacheva GV, Gigova LG. Biological activity of microalgae can be enhanced by manipulating the cultivation temperature and irradiance. Cent Eur J Biol 2014;9:1168–81.
Campos H, Boeing WJ, Dungan BN, Schaub T. Cultivating the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina under various nitrogen sources: effect on biovolume yields, lipid content and composition, and invasive organisms. Biomass Bioenergy 2014;6:2–8.
Marcu D, Damian G, Cosma C, Cristea V. Gamma radiation effects on seed germination, growth and pigment content, and ESR study of induced free radicals in maize (Zea mays). J Biol Phys 2013;39:625–34.
Rahman K. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clin Interv Aging 2007;2:219–36.
Kebeish R, Hanan ED, Nagwa E. Effect of gamma radiation on growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant system and allin producing gene transcripts in Allium sativum. Int J Res Stud Biosci 2015;3:161–74.
Zahran AA, Eliwa NE. Influence of gamma radiation, glutathione and ascorbic acid on some antioxidant enzymes in Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) under aluminium stress. Am Emras J Agric Environ Sci 2015;15:1887–94.
Tale MP, Devi SR, Kapadnis BP, Sukhendu BG. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipid accumulation and expression of regulatory genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Chlorella species. J Appl Phycol 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-017-1229-9.
Abomohra AEF, El-Shouny W, Sharaf M, Abo-eleneen M. Effect of gamma radiation on growth and metabolic activities of Arthrospira platensis. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2016;59:1–12.
Marathe SA, Deshpande R, Khamesra A, Ibrahim G, Jamdar SN. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans. Radiat Phys Chem 2016;125:1–8.
Iglesias Andreu L, Octavio Aguilar P, Bello Bello J. Current importance and potential use of low doses of gamma radiation in forest species. In: Adrovic F. (Ed.) Gamma Radiation InTech; 2012. p. 263–80.
Pimentel FB, Alves RC, Rodrigues F, Oliveira MBPP. Macroalgae–derived ingredients for the cosmetic industry–an update. Cosmetics 2018;5:1–18.
Paschinger H, Vanicek T. Effect of gamma irradiation on two mechanisms of Rb (K) uptake by Chlorella. Rad Bot 1974;14:301–7.
Vershina LK, Sakorich IS, Shevchenko VA. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorella at different stages in the cell cycle. Kosm Biol Aviak Med 1976;10:79–80.
Sawant SS, Kelkar Mane V. Nutritional profile, antioxidant, antimicrobial potential, and bioactive profile of Chlorella emersonii KJ725233. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:220–5.
Sawant SS, Joshi AA, Bhagwat AA, Kelkar Mane V. Tapping the antioxidant potential of a novel isolate–Chlorella emersonii. World J Pharm Res 2014;3:726–39.
Sawant SS, Kelkar Mane V. Correlating the anti-aging activity with the bioactive profile of C. emersonii KJ725233; its toxicological studies for potential use in cosmeceuticals. Phcog Commn 2017;7:152–7.
Henriques M, Silva A, Rocha J. Extraction and quantification of pigments from a marine microalga: a simple and reproducible method. In: Mendez Vilas A. editor. Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology. Vol 1. Spain: Formatex; 2007. p. 586–93.
Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: measurement and characterization by UV-VIS spectroscopy. In: Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 2001. p. F4.3.1–8.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphor-molybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999;269:337–41.
Hemalatha A, Girija K, Parthiban C, Saranya C, Anantharaman P. Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of a marine diatom, Navicula clavata and green microalgae, Chlorella marina and Dunaliella salina. Adv Appl Sci Res 2013;4:151–7.
Bendaoud H, Bouajila J, Rhouma A, Savagnac A, Romdhane M. GC/MS analysis and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus radiata. J Sci Food Agric 2009;89:1292–7.
Wu LC, Ho JA, Shieh MC, Lu IW. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Spirulina and Chlorella water extracts. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:4207–12.
Velvizhi S, Annapurani S. Estimation of total flavonoid, phenolic content and free radical scavenging potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:231–5.
Mohajer S, Taha RM, Lay MM, Esmaeili AK, Khalili M. Stimulatory effects of gamma irradiation on phytochemical properties, mitotic behavior and nutritional composition of sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia Scop.). Sci World J 2014:1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/854093.
Fu JS, Mao JC, Wu E, Jia YQ, Zhang BR, Zhang LZ, et al. Gamma-rays irradiation: an effective method for improving light emission stability of porous silicon. Appl Phys Lett 1993;63:1830–2.
Ali H, Ghori Z, Sheikh S, Gul A. Effect of gamma radiation on crop production. In: Hakeem KR. editor. Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Cham: Springer; 2015. p. 27–78.
Reisz JA, Bansal N, Qian J, Zhao W, Furdui CM. Effects of ionizing radiation on biological molecules–mechanisms of damage and emerging methods of detection. Antiox Redox Signal 2014;21:260–92.
Moukette BM, Pieme CA, Nijmou JR, Biapa CPN, Marco B, Ngogang JY. In vitro antioxidant properties, free radical scavenging activities of extracts and polyphenol composition of a non-timber forest product used as spice: Monodora myristica. Biol Res 2015;48:1–17.
Pal RS, Kumar AR, Agrawal PK, Bhatt JC. Antioxidant capacity and related phytochemical analysis of a methanolic extract of two wild edible fruits from Northwestern Indian Himalaya. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2013;4:113–23.
Apak RK, Guclu K, Demirata B, Ozyurek M, Celik S, Bektasoglu B, et al. Comparative evaluation of various total antioxidant capacity assays applied to phenolic compounds with the CUPRAC assay. Mol 2007;12:1496–547.
Saranya C, Hemalatha A, Parthiban C, Anantharaman P. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, total phenolic and carotenoid content of Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chlorella salina and Isochrysis galbana. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2014;3:365–77.
Fernandes A, Antonio AL, Oliveria MBP, Martins A, Ferreira IC. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review. Food Chem 2012;135:641–50.
Geetha BV, Navasakthi R, Padmini E. Investigation of antioxidant capacity and phytochemical composition of sun chlorella-an in vitro study. J Aqua Res Dev 2010;1:1–7.
Suffo KL, Ashish R, Pamo TE, Kuiate JR. Effect of processing methods on chemical composition and antioxidant activities of two amaranthus sp. harvested in the west region of cameroons. J Nutr Food Sci 2016;6:1–9.
Santos CCMP, Salvadori M, Mota VG, Costa LM, Almeida AAC, Oliveira GAL, et al. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of phytol in vivo and in vitro. Neurosci J 2013:1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/949452.
Venkat RB, Samuel LA, Paradha SM, Narashimha RB, Radhakrishnan TM. Antibacterial, antioxidant activity and GC-MS analysis of Eupatorium odoratum. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:99–106.
Dorp KV, Holzl G, Plohmann C, Eisenhut M, Abraham M, Weber APM, et al. Remobilization of phytol from chlorophyll degradation is essential for tocopherol synthesis and growth of arabidopsis. Plant Cell 2015;27:2846–59.
Sen KC, Rink C, Khanna S. Palm oil-derived natural Vitamin E α-tocotrienol in brain health and diseases. J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29:314S–23S.
Engin KN. Alpha-tocopherol: looking beyond an antioxidant. Mol Vis 2009;15:855–60.
Wu SJ, Lui PL, Ng LT. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil exhibits anti-inflammatory property by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators in human monocytic cells. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008;52:921–9.
Keen MA, Hassan I. Vitamin E in dermatology. Indian Dermatol Online J 2016;7:311–4.
Rajendran N, Karpanai SB, Sobana PP, Logeswari V, Kathiresan E, Tamilselvi A, et al. Phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant screening from five different marine microalgae. J Chem Pharm Sci 2014:Suppl:78–85.
Jung KW, Yang DH, Kim MK, Seo HS, Lim S, Bahn YS. Unraveling fungal radiation resistance regulatory networks through genome-wide transcriptome and genetic analyses of Cryptococcus neoformans. mBio 2016:7:1–15.
Grynberg P, Passos Silva DG, Mourao MM, Roberto H, Macedo AM, Machado CR, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi gene expression in response to gamma radiation. PLoS One 2012;7:1–14.