• Abubakr O. Nur Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum
  • Negla A. Yagoub Al-Ma'arefa Science and Technology College (MSTC) Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Nasrin K. Mohamed Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum


Objective: This study addresses comparative efficiency of three natural gums, namely, xanthan gum, guar gum and thermally treated guar gum, as drug release barriers for sparingly and free water soluble model drugs.

Methods: guar gum, xanthan gum or thermally primed treated guar gum (as matrix forming gum) were each used with microcrystalline cellulose (as supportive polymer) and either Propranolol-HCl, as a water soluble drug or Diclofenac-Na, as a water insoluble drug, to produce a series of matrix formulations using direct compression. Matrices were then qualified for friability, hardness, and drug release attributes.

Results: With an exception to guar gum based matrices which measures very low hardness, all matrices were found within the acceptable limit or criteria for friability and hardness. Guar gum demonstrated more ability to sustain the release of loaded drugs as compared to other gums. Although both drug solubility and gum type were shown to influence drug release profiles of investigated matrices, only drug solubility demonstrated to affect the kinetics of drug release, especially with xanthan gum matrices.

Conclusion: Compared to treated guar and xanthan gums, guar gum can be effectively used to fabricate sustained release matrices for both water soluble and insoluble drugs.

Keywords: Guar gum, Treated guar gum, Xanthan gum, Matrices, Propranolol-HCl, Diclofenac-Na.


Download data is not yet available.


Goswami S, Naik S. Natural gums and its pharmaceutical application. J Sci Innovative Res 2014;3 Suppl 1:112-21.

Yagoub NA, Nur AO. The Influence of thermal treatment on physical properties of guar gum. Int J Innovations Pharm Sci 2013;2 Suppl 6:26-31.

Nur AO, Elamin AAG, Osman ZA, Sara A Ahmed. Influence of type and content of guar gum as a disintegrant and production technique on attributes of immediate release tablets. Am J Pharm Tech Res 2014;4 Suppl 5:546-57.

Kadajji VG, Betageri GV. Water soluble polymers for pharmaceutical applications. Polymers 2011;3:1972-2009.

Chourasia MK, Jain SK. Potential of guar gum microspheres for target specific drug release to colon. J Drug Target 2004;12 Suppl 7:435-42.

Dey S, Mazumder B, Chattopadhyay S, Das MK, Sinha S, Ganguly S, et al. Polymers derived from xanthomonas campesteris and cyamopsis tetragonolobus used as retardant materials for the formulation of sustained release floating matrix tablet of atenolol. Int J Biol Macromol 2014;65:346-56.

Groves E, Chaw CS. Incorporation of calcium salts into xanthan gum matrices: hydration, erosion and drug release characteristics. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014;5:1-9.

Gilbert L, Loisel V, Savary G, Grisel M, Picard C. Stretching properties of xanthan, carob, modified guar and celluloses in cosmetic emulsions. Carbohydr Polym 2013;93 Suppl 2:644-50.

Iqbal Z, Khan R, Nasir F, Khan JA, Rashid A, Khan A, et al. Preparation and in-vitro in-vivo evaluation of sustained release matrix diclofenac sodium tablets using PVP-K90 and natural gums. Pak J Pharm Sci 2011;24 Suppl 4:435-43.

Jackson C, Udonkang I. In-vitro studies of xanthan gum based formulation of albendazole for colon targeted delivery. Int J Pharm Biomed Res 2011;2 Suppl 2:59-63.

Yeole PG, Galgatte UC, Babla IB, Nakhat PD. Design and evaluation of xanthan gum-based sustained release matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium. Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68 Suppl 2:185-9.

Ali MS, Singh S, Kumar A, Singh S, Ansari MT, Pattnaik G. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of phenytoin sodium using natural polymers. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2 Suppl 3:174-9.

Shaikh A, Shaikh P, Pawar Y, Kumbhar S, Katedeshmukh R. Effect of gums and excipients on drug release of ambroxol-HCl sustained release matrices. J Curr Pharm Res 2011;6 Suppl 1:11-5.

Bradley TD, Ball A, Harding SE, Mitchell JR. Thermal degradation of guar gum. Carbohyd Polym 1989;10:205-14.

British Pharmacopoeia. Volume V, XVII G, H and XII B1. London: British Pharmacopoeia Commission; 2013. p. A487, A489, A332-A353.

Reza S, Abdul Quadir M, Haider SS. Comparative evaluation of plastic, hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers as matrices for controlled-release drug delivery. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2003;6 Suppl 2:282-91.

Derle D, Joshi O, Pawar A, Patel J, Jagadale A. Formulation and evaluation of buccoadhesive bi-layer tablet of propranolol hydrochloride. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2009;1 Suppl 1:206-12.

Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas NA. Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophillic polymers. Int J Pharm 1983;15:25-35.

Rao KRK, Vani GN, Murthy TEGK. Kinetic evaluation of flow, compression and dissolution characteristics of chloroquine phosphate tablets. J Pharm Educ Res 2012;3 Suppl 2:13-8.

Cheng Y, Brown KM, Prud'homme RK. Preparation and characterization of molecular weight fractions of guar galactomannans using acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. Int J Biol Macromol 2002;31 Suppl 1-3:29-35.

Alderborn G. Tablets and compaction. In: Aulton ME, editor’s. Pharmaceutics: the science of dosage form design. 2nd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone Press; 2002. p. 397-440.

Gohel MC, Amin AF, Panchal MK, Momin M, Bajaj S, Lalwani A. Preliminary investigation in matrix based tablet formulation of diclofenac sodium containing succinic acid treated guar gum. Boll Chim Farm 1998;137 Suppl 6:198-203.

Mustafa ME, Nur AO, Osman ZA, Ahmed SA. Influence of drug solubility and polymers supply source on the physical performance of matrix tablets. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6 Suppl 10:308-12.

Mughal MA, Iqbal Z, Neau SH. Guar Gum. Xanthan gum, and HPMC can define release mechanisms and sustain release of propranolol hydrochloride. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2011;12 Suppl 1:77-87.

Jain S, Yadav SK, Patil UK. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of furosemide using natural polymers. Res J Pharm Tech 2008;1:374-6.

Nochodchi A, Farid DJ, Najdfi M, Adrangui M. Studies on controlled-release formulations of diclofenac sodium. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1997;23:1019-23.

Ubrich N, Bouillot P, Pellerin C, Hoffman M, Maincent P. Preparation and characterization of propranolol hydrochloride nanoparticles: a comparative study. J Control Rel 2004;97 Suppl 2:291-300.

Sujja-areevath J, Munday DL, Cox PJ, Khan KA. Relationship between swelling, erosion and drug release in hydrophillic natural gum mini-matrix formulations. Eur J Pharm Sci 1998;6 Suppl 3:207-17.



How to Cite

Nur, A. O., N. A. Yagoub, and N. K. Mohamed. “COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF XANTHAN, GUAR AND TREATED GUAR GUMS AS DRUG RELEASE BARRIERS IN ORAL MATRICES”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 2, Feb. 2015, pp. 436-40,



Original Article(s)