• PADMANAVA CHAKRABORTI Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology, ITM University, Gwalior https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6679-5545
  • ANURAG AGRAWAL School of pharmacy, ITM University, Gwalior
  • SONIA JOHRI School of Life Sciences, ITM University, Gwalior https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0012-0622




Solanum virginianum, wound healing, Aqueous extract, Alcohol extract


Objective: Evaluation of the wound healing activity of Solanum virginianum root extracts using excision and incision wound models. 

Methods: Moisture content, Ash value, Acid insoluble ash value, Water-soluble ash value, and different extractive values were studied as physicochemical parameters. Qualitative screening of each extract was carried out to determine different types of phytochemicals. In addition, a pharmacological study was conducted on groups of rats to find the effectiveness of root extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) on the wound healing process. 

Results: Following observations were noted after the physicochemical test: Moisture content, 3.2%; Ash value, 5.77%; Acid insoluble ash, 1.17%; Water-soluble ash, 7.27%; Alcohol soluble extractive, 16.77%; Water-soluble extractive, 17.02%. After a qualitative chemical examination of alcohol and aqueous root extract, alkaloids, carbohydrates, phytosterols, saponins, phenolics, proteins, and flavonoids were detected. The excision wound model showed wound contraction for the alcohol extract group on the 12th day at 90.78% and the aqueous group at 85.23%. In the incision wound model, the alcohol extract-treated group showed significant wound breaking strength compared to the control and the aqueous extract-treated group.

Conclusion: This study on the root was carried out to find evidence of the wound healing activity of its extracts. Results indicate the effectiveness of the extracts in enhancing the wound healing process in rat models. The result of qualitative screening enhances the future scope for various pharmacological approaches. 


Download data is not yet available.


Akerele O. Nature’s medicinal bounty: don’t throw it away. World Health Forum. 1993;14(4):390-5. PMID 8185790.

Petrovska BB. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage. Pharmacogn Rev. 2012 Jun 08;6(11):1-5. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.95849, PMID 22654398.

Raina R, Prawez S, Verma PK, Pankaj NK. Medicinal plants and their role in wound healing. Vet Scan. 2008 Jan 01;3(1):1-7.

Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Nat Prod Rep. 2000 May 23;17(3):215-34. doi: 10.1039/a902202c, PMID 10888010.

Nwachukure CU, Umeh CN, Kalu IG, Okere S, Nwoko Magnus C. Identification and traditional uses of some common medicinal plants in Ezinhitte Mbawase L. G. A, Imo State, Nigeria. Report and Opinion. 2010;2(6):1-8.

Khwere CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: an illustrated dictionary. 1st ed. New York: Springer Verlag; 2007.

Parmar S, Gangwal A, Sheth N. Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow berried night shade): a review. Pharm Lett. 2011 Jun 06;2(4):373-83.

Paul R, Datta AK. An updated overview on Solanum xanthocarpum schradand wendl. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm. 2011 Jul 11;2(3):730-5.

Ahmed S, Hasan MM. Standardization of crude drugs: A precise review. World J Pharm Res. 2015;4(10):155-74.

Kokate CK. Practical pharmacognosy. 4th ed. New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1994.

Ghildiyal S, Joshi VK. Pharmacognostical studies of Solanum surattence Burm. f. root. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2014 Aug 30;3(4):240-5.

Meena AK, Rao MM, Sharma K, Kandale A, Singh U, Yadav A. Evaluation of physicochemical and standardisation parameters of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl. Int J Anal Chem. 2010 Mar;1(3):47-9.

Husanappa GY, Tippana BS. Pharmacognostic studies of kantakari root (Solanum xanthocarpum schrad. and wendl.): an experimental study. Int J Sci Clin Invent. 2014 Oct 25;1(8):420-30.

Gangwar AK, Ghosh AK, Saxena V. Phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of ”Kantkari”. Int J Herb Med. 2013 Jan 01;1(2):177-86.

Tekuri SK, Pasupuleti SK, Konidala KK, Amuru SR, Bassaiahgiri P, Pabbaraju N. Phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Solanum surattense burm. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2019 Mar 30;9(3):126-36.

Rohini P, Aditya T, Anil M, Arun K. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentiality of solanum xanthocarpum. Afr J Biotechnol. 2018 Sep 12;17(37):1188-95. doi: 10.5897/AJB2018.16560.

Garg VK, Paliwal SK. Wound-healing activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of ficus benghalensis. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011 Apr 01;2(2):110-4. doi: 10.4103/2231-4040.82957, PMID 22171302.

Murti K, Kumar U. Enhancement of wound healing with roots of Ficus racemosa L. in albino rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Apr 01;2(4):276-80. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60022-7, PMID 23569913.

Umeh VN, LLodigue EE, Ajaghaku DL, Erhirhie EU, Moke GU, Ekah PA. Wound healing activity of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Ficus exasperate (Moraceae) and its safety evaluation on albino rats. J Tradit Complement Med. 2014 Oct 01;4(4):246-52.

Murthy S, Gautam MK, Goel S, Purohit V, Sharma H, Goel RK. Evaluation of in vivo wound healing activity of Bacopa monniera on different wound model in rats. BioMed Res Int. 2013;2013:972028. doi: 10.1155/2013/972028. PMID 23984424.

Hemant NK, Srivastava AK, Srivastava R, Kurmi ML, Chandel HS, Ranawat MS. Pharmacological investigation of the wound healing activity of Cestrum nocturnum(L.) ointment in wistar albino rats. J Pharmacol. 2016 Jan 01;2016:1-8.

Lee KH. Studies on the mechanism of action of salicylate. II. Retardation of wound healing by aspirin. J Pharm Sci. 1968 Jun;57(6):1042-3. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600570633, PMID 5671327.

Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy. The ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1. Vol. 1. Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2001.

Dewangan H, Bais M, Jaiswal V, Verma VK. Potential wound healing activity of the ethanolic extract of Solanum xanthocarpum schrad and wendl leaves. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012;25(1):189-94. PMID 22186329.

Kumar N, Prakash D, Kumar P. Wound healing activity of Solanum xanthocarpum fruits. Int J Nat Prod Resour. 2010 Jan 01;1(4):470-5.

Nayak BS, Sandiford S, Maxwell A. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of ethanolic extract of morinda citrifolia L. leaf. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Oct 25;6(3):351-6. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem127, PMID 18955257.

Panche A, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoides: an overview. J Nutr Sci. 2016 Dec 29;5(47):1-15.

Okuda T. Systematics and health effects of chemically distinct tannins in medicinal plants. Phytochemistry. 2005 Oct 01;66(17):2012-31. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.023, PMID 15982679.

Root Bernstein RS. Tannic acid, semipermeable membranes, and burn treatment. Lancet. 1982 Nov 20;2(8308):1168. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(82)92832-x, PMID 6128490.

Hupkens P, Boxma H, Dokter J. Tannic acid as a topical agent in burns: historical considerations and implications for new developments. Burns. 1995 Feb;21(1):57-61. doi: 10.1016/0305-4179(95)90784-w, PMID 7718122.

Qing C. The molecular biology in wound healing & non-healing wound. Chin J Traumatol. 2017 Jun 01;20(4):189-93. doi: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2017.06.001, PMID 28712679.

Furrianca MC, Alvear M, Zambrano T, Fajardo V, Salazar LA. Phytochemical constituents of the root of Berberis microphylla. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017 Mar;10(6):225-7. doi: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i6.17803.

Sakthi A. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro free radical scavenging activity of root extracts of glycyrrhiza glabra l. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2016 Jul 02;9(6):85-90. doi: 10.22159/ajpcr.2016.v9i6.13675.



How to Cite

CHAKRABORTI, P., A. AGRAWAL, and S. JOHRI. “EVALUATION OF IN VIVO WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM VIRGINIANUM ROOT EXTRACT ON EXCISION AND INCISION WOUND MODEL IN RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 6, June 2022, pp. 17-23, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2022v14i6.43104.



Original Article(s)