COMPARATIVE STUDY ON NUTRIENT COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL FRUITS WITH EMPHASIS ON BANANA FRUIT PEEL
Keywords:Banana peel, Proximate composition, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Nutrient composition colorimeter, Ripening, Anti-nutritional factor, BSA (bovine serum albumin)
Objective: To determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional components of banana peel at various stages of ripening and compared it with tropical fruits (apple and mango).
Methods: Initially, nutrient values for individual fruits and its peel (Apple, Mango, and Banana) samples were analyzed. The color values (L, a, b, and c*value,) and textural characteristics (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness) were used to determine the ripening stage. Protein, sugar, carbohydrate, crude fiber, crude fat, tannin, and oxalate content were all evaluated to determine their nutritional and anti-nutritional qualities.
Results: After statistical analysis, it was investigated that banana peels in the unripe stage had lower crude fat content (1.2±0.03%) and moisture content (5.97±0.12%). The amount of crude fiber in banana peel (36.16±0.09%) was found to be high when compared to mango (26.5±0.06%) and apple peel (10.7±0.06%), which greatly boosted its nutritional value. Unripe banana peel has a low K (245.1±0.07 mg/100 gm) and high Mg (566.61±0.07 mg/100 gm) ratio. This increases its potential as an anti-diabetic source. Whereas leaky ripe banana peels have the maximum potassium content (11730±0.09 mg/100 gm), followed by ripe (7288±0.06 mg/100 gm) and unripe (245.1±0.07 mg/100 gm), making them equally nutritionally important.
Conclusion: The investigation concluded that though all fruits are tropical and readily available all year around, but banana are cheaper and nutritionally rich. Banana peel has a low level of anti-nutritional factor, which makes it safe for human consumption. All stages of the banana peel are equally significant. Leaky ripe peels contain many valuable vitamins and minerals, ranging from iron (7.7±0.09 mg/100 gm) to phosphorus (36.6±0.19) to calcium (567.4±0.06 mg/100 gm) to Na (42.5±0.09 mg/100 gm) and K (11730±0.09 mg/100 gm), which can help to enrich soil fertility, and thus could be used as an organic fertilizer. Whereas, unripe banana peels could be used for many therapeutic purposes due to their high fiber, essential fat, and mineral content. Thus, they are not recommended to be thrown and used in for more socio-economic purposes.
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