OPTIMIZATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND STABILITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS BLEND LOADED NANOEMULSIONS BY PIC TECHNIQUE FOR ANTI-TYROSINASE ACTIVITY
Keywords:Nanoemulsions, Phase inversion composition, Essential oils, Anti-tyrosinase activity
Objective: This study was proposed to develop nanoemulsions loading essential oils blend with anti-tyrosinase activity prepared by phase inversion composition technique (PIC).
Methods: The nanoemulsions were formulated using the essential oils blend (EB) mixed with virgin coconut oil as carrier oil. PEG 40 hydrogenated castor oil and sorbitan monooleate were used as surfactant system. The effect of surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) and surfactant mixture concentration were determined. The EB loaded nanoemulsions were then characterized for their physical appearances, droplet size, zeta potential and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Moreover, the stability under various storage conditions was also determined.
Results: The results revealed that all the produced nanoemulsions were highly stable under various storage conditions with an average droplet size between 29.55 to 37.12 nm. The polydispersity index (PDI) values of all formulas were less than 0.2 and their zeta potentials ranged between -14.51 to -20.40 mV. Additionally, the EB loaded nanoemulsions presented good inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity.
Conclusion: The loading of the essential oils blend into nanoemulsions could be successfully prepared by phase inversion composition technique (PIC) that improved their stability and decreased the volatilization of the loaded essential oils.
JosÃ© JE, Isabel MR, Clara LD, Roberto D, Alma LR, Norma CA. Nanocarrier systems for transdermal drug delivery. In: Ali DS, editors. Recent advances in novel drug carrier. Croatia: In Tech; 2012. p. 210-4.
SÃ£o PA, Espirito SI, Silva CV, Detoni C, Albuquerque E. The use of nanotechnology as an approach for essential oil-based formulations with antimicrobial activity. In: MÃ©ndez VA, editors. Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education. Spain: Formatex Research Center; 2013. p. 1364-71.
Venkata VV, Omathanu PP. Nanosystems for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. In: Yashwant P, Deepak T, editors. Drug delivery nanoparticles formulation and characterization. New York: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc; 2009. p. 126-45.
Solans C, Izquierdo P, Nolla J, Azemar N, Garcia-Celma MJ. Nano-emulsions. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2005;10:102â€“10.
Mason TG, Wilking JN, Meleson K, Chang CB, Graves SM. Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties. J Phys: Condens Matter 2006;18:R635â€“66.
GutiÃ©rrez JM, GonzÃ¡lez C, Maestro A, SolÃ¨ I, Pey CM, Nolla J. Nano-emulsions: New applications and optimization of their preparation. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2008;13:245â€“51.
Ajay P, Devendra ST, Peeyush K, Jhageshwar V. A review on novel lipid based nanocarriers. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2(4):30-5.
Nicolas A, Jean-Pierre B, Patrick S. Design and production of nanoparticles formulated from nano-emulsion templatesâ€”A review. J Controlled Release 2008;128:185â€“99.
Conxita S, Isabel S. Nano-emulsions: formation by low-energy methods. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2012;17:246â€“54.
Patrick F, ValÂ´erie A, Jens R, Angelika K. Nano-emulsion formation by emulsion phase inversion. Colloids Surf A 2004;251:53â€“8.
Shah P, Bhalodia D, Shelet P. Nanoemulsion: a pharmaceutical review. Syst Rev Pharm 2010;1(1):24-32.
Tharwat T, Izquierdo P, Esquena J, Solans C. Formation and stability of nano-emulsions. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2004;108â€“109:303â€“18.
Nicolas A, Thierry FV. Nano-emulsions and Micro-emulsions: clarifications of the critical differences. Pharm Res 2011;28:978â€“85.
Cheng LN, Mahiran B, Minaketan T, Roghayeh AK, Emilia AM. Physicochemical characterization and thermodynamic studies of nanoemulsion-based transdermal delivery system for fullerene. Sci World J 2014;1(12):1-10.
Nicolas A, Thierry FV. The universality of low-energy nano-emulsification. Int J Pharm 2009;377:142â€“7.
Yuhua C, David JM. Optimization of orange oil nanoemulsion formation by isothermal low-energy methods: influence of the oil phase, Surfactant, and Temperature. J Agric Food Chem 2014;62:2306âˆ’12.
Sarmad AE, Saringat B. Formulation and stability of whitening VCO-in-water nano-cream. Int J Pharm 2009;373:174â€“8.
Sinja M, Jochen W, David JM. Vitamin E-enriched nanoemulsions formed by emulsion phase inversion: factors influencing droplet size and stability. J Colloid Interface Sci 2013;402:122â€“30.
Chlodwig F, Johannes N. Sources of essential oils. In: Baser KH, Buchbauer G, editors. Handbook of essential oils. Science, technology, and applications. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press; 2009. p. 39-41.
Abdelouaheb D, Amadou D. The therapeutic benefits of essential oils. In: Jaouad B, Torsten BN. Nutrition, Well-Being and Health. Croatia: In Tech; 2012. p. 155-66.
Tetsuo N, Andrew TL, John WC, Raphael KK. Biological activity of essential oils and their constituents. In: Atta R. Studies in natural products chemistry: Bioactive Natural Products (Part B). vol 21. Hardbound: Elsevier; 2000. p. 571-623.
Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils â€“ A review. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:446â€“75.
Barbara A, Gerhard B. Biological properties of essential oils: an updated review. Flavour Frag J 2010;25:407â€“26.
Riccardo A, Mario CF, Luca V. Antioxidant activity of essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61:10835âˆ’47.
Wantida C, Rungsinee P, Pimporn L. Characterization of hydrodistillatedpomelo peel oil and the enhancement of biological activities using microemulsion formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(9):596-602.
Claudia T, Florian CS. Stability of essential oils: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2013;12:40-9.
Anna RB, Clizia G, Benedetta I, Chiara R, Fabio F, Maria CB. Essential oils loaded in nanosystems: a developing strategy for a successful therapeutic approach. Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2014;1-12.
Mirna S, Catherine C, Hatem F, HeÂ´ le`ne G. Essential oils encapsulated in liposomes: a review. J Liposome Res 2013;23(4):268â€“75.
Fernanda CF, Roseane FR, Aline FO, Clarice C, Bona S. Nanostructured systems containing an essential oil: protection against volatilization. Quim Nova 2011;34(6):968-72.
Hoeller S, Sperger A, Valenta C. Lecithin based nanoemulsions: A comparative study of the influence of non-ionic surfactants and the cationic phytosphingosine on physicochemical behaviour and skin permeation. Int J Pharm 2009;370:181-6.
Chime SA, Kenechukwu FC, Attama AA. Nanoemulsionsâ€”Advances in Formulation, Characterization and applications in drug delivery. In: Ali DS. Application of nanotechnology in drug delivery. Croatia: In Tech; 2014. p. 77-111.
Vijayalakshmi G, Saranya S, Amitava M, Natarajan C. Cinnamon Oil Nanoemulsion formulation by ultrasonic emulsification: investigation of its bactericidal activity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2013;13:114â€“22.
Watcharee K, Praphatson V, Chariya H. In vitro bioactivities of clove bud oil (Eugenia caryophyllata) and its effect on dermal fibroblast. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(3):556-60.