• Manasa D. J. Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, 574199, India.
  • K. R. Chandrashekar Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574199, India


Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall, Antioxidant activity, Antibacterial activity


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different crude extracts of leaves of T. heyneana

Methods: Crude extracts of methanol, chloroform, dichloromethane and dichloroethane of leaf were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity by DPPH (diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and reducing power assay. Quantitative analysis of total phenolics was done by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoids by aluminium chloride method.

Results: Methanolic extract of T. heyneana exhibited the presence of all the phytochemicals tested except triterpenoids and saponins. The highest phenolic content of 14.0±0.45 mg GAE/g and flavonoid content of 81.62±0.47 mg QE/g were found in methanol extract. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 20.3±0.56 µg/ml) and reducing power was exhibited by methanolic extract. The methanolic extract showed maximum antibacterial activity of 12.66±0.57 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and least of 9.23±0.25 mm against Proteus vulgaris.

Conclusion: These findings provide scientific evidence to support the traditional use of Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. and also indicate that the leaves of this species are a promising potential for the development of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

K. R. Chandrashekar, Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574199, India


Department of Applied Botany,


Mithraja MJ, Irudayaraj D, Kiruba S, Jeeva S. Antibacterial efficacy of Drynaria quercifola (L.) J Smith (Polypodiaceae) against clinically isolated urinary tract pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2(1):131-5.

Doughari JH, El-mahmood AM, Tyoyina I. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Senna obtusifolia (L.). Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2008;2(1):7-13.

Parekh J, Chanda SV. In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turk J Biol 2007;31:53–8.

Fabricant DS, Fansworth NR. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109:69-75.

Ying T, Ping-tao. L Apocynaceae. Fl Reipubl Popularis Sinicae 1977;63:1–249.

Ignacimuthu S, Ayyanar M. Traditional knowledge of Kani tribals in Kouthalai of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;102:246–55.

Ignacimuthu S, Ayyanar M, Sivaraman K. Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in madurai district of Tamil Nadu, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2006;2:25.

Roy R, Grover RK, Srivastva S, Kulshreshtha DK. A new stereoisomer of stemmadenine alkaloid from Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. Magn Reson Chem 2002;40(7):474-6.

Sathishkumar T, Baskar R, Shanmugam S, Rajasekaran P, Sadasivam S, Manikandan V. Optimization of flavonoids extraction from the leaves of Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. using L16 Orthogonal design. Natr Sci 2008;6(3):10-21.

Dai J, Mumper R. Plant phenolics: Extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules 2010;15(10):7313-52.

Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J Chem Technol Metall 2005;40(3):255-60.

Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin M, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human diseases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007;39(1):44–84.

Uddin SN, Akond MA, Mubassara S, Yesmin MN. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Trema cannabina. Middle East J Sci Res 2008;3:105-8.

Jayasri MA, Mathew L, Radha A. A report on the antioxidant activities of leaves and rhizomes of Costus pictus D. Int J Integr Biol 2009;5(1):20-6.

Srivastava J, Lambert J, Vietmeyer N. Medicinal Plants: An expanding role in development. World Bank Technical Paper;1996. p. 320.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, Ed.2. London: Chapman and Hall; 1973.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd; 1993. p. 191-289.

Ghani A. Medicinal plants of Bangladesh with chemical constituents and uses. 2nd ed. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh; 2003. p. 345.

Ikram EHK, Eng K, Jalil AMM, Ismail A, Idris A. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Malaysian under utilized fruits. J Food Compos Anal 2009;22:388-93.

Zishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging affects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999;64:555-9.

Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reactions: Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Japan J Nutr 1986;44:307-15.

Rajamurugan R, Thirunavukkarasu C, Sakthivel V, Sivashanmugam M, Raghavan CM. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Tecoma Stans flowers. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2013;4(2):124–30.

Britto JD, Sebastian SR, Sujin MR. Phytochemical and antibacterial screening of seven Apocynaceae species against human pathogens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:5.

Rahman N, Mahmood R, Rahman H, Haris M. Systematic screening for phytochemicals of various solvent extracts of Thevetia Peruviana Schum. leaves and fruit rind. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:8.

Senthil TK, Venkappayya D, Vilambi NRK, Manavalan R. Estimation of total phenolic and flavonoids content from extract of Wrightia Tinctoria (Roxb) R. Br. leaves and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2014;5(1):606–11.

Saravanakumar A, Venkateshwaran K, Vanitha J, Ganesh M, Vasudevan M, Sivakumar T. Evaluation of antibacterial activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of Thespesia Populnea flower extracts. Pak J Pharm Sci 2009;22(3):282-6.

Ghosh M, Sinha NB, Seijas AJ, Tato M PV, Feás X. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds from Litsea Polyantha Juss. bark. 18th International Electronic Conference on Synthetic Organic Chemistry ECSOC; 2014. p. 18.

Khanavi M, Hajimahmoodi M, Cheraghi-Niroomand M, Kargar Z, Ajani Y. Comparison of the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents in some Stachys species. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8(6):1143-7.

Uddin G, Rauf A. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of Quercus robur L, Middle East J Med Plants Res 2012;1(1):1-4.

Sathishkumar T, Ramakrishnan B. Screening and quantification of phytochemicals in the leaf and flower of Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall.–a nearly threatened plant medicinal plant. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2014;5(3):237-43.

Mohammed FG, Nagendra PK, Kong KW, Amin I. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities from Citrus species. Afr J Biotechnol 2010;9(3):326-30.

Van Beek TA, Verpoorte R, Svendsen AB, Leewenberg AJM, Bisset NG. Tabernaemontana L. (Apocynaceae): A review of its taxonomy, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol Lausanne 1984;10(1):1-156.

Verpoorte R, Van Beek TA, Thomassen PHAM, Aandewiel JTA, Svendsen AB. Screening of antimicrobial activity of some plants belonging to the Apocynaceae and Loganiaceae. J Ethnopharmacol Lausanne 1983;(8):287-302.

Sathishkumar T, Baskar R, Rajeshkumar M. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. leaves. J Appl Pharm Sci 2012;2(8):107-11.

Kivanc M, Akgul A. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from turkish spices and citrus. Flavours Fragrances 1986;1:175-9.

Dorman HJD, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:308-16.

Hsieh PC, Mau JL, Huang SH. Antimicrobial effect of various combinations of plant extracts. Food Microbiol 2001;18:35-43.



How to Cite

J., M. D., and K. R. Chandrashekar. “ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TABERNAEMONTANA HEYNEANA WALL. AN ENDEMIC PLANT OF WESTERN GHATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, July 2015, pp. 311-5,



Original Article(s)