• Muaed Jamal Alomar PhD clinical pharmacoinformatics; Clinical Pharmacy Lecturer; Alain University of Science and Technology; Alain, UAE. Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Clinical Pharmacy Department


Post-partum, Depression, Delivery, Newborn, Support, Anxiety


Objective: Is to evaluate factors related to the development of postpartum depression among an United Arab Emirates and Omani societies.

Methods: The study was prospective, observational, and descriptive using a self-reporting questionnaire. Arab women in the UAE who had recently delivered within two months were eligible for inclusion in the study whether they had a vaginal or caesarean delivery.

Results: The study included forty Emirati and Omani participants with Omani women being the majority (65%). Around 55% of the participants confessed low motherhood satisfaction, twenty-five (62%) residing in a city and had the baby in a local hospital, twenty-one (52.5%) of the newborns were boys. Many factors associated with an increased likelihood of PPD have been established in this study such as diet, exercise, colicky baby, financial constrains and many other factors which all show some association with PPD, Fifteen (37.5%) of the questioned women preferred artificial sweeteners during pregnancy, ten of them had a cesarean delivery. Statistical analysis revealed that twenty-five (62.5%) had a cesarean delivery, twenty-two of them complained of postpartum anxiety (p-value = 0.009, significant difference is present between anxious women who had vaginal childbirth and cesarean delivery).

Conclusion: PPD is a serious condition which merits thorough investigation and better understanding among families, friends, patients and healthcare providers. It is recommended that health authorities and institutions to arrange for public campaigns about this silent disease.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Muaed Jamal Alomar, PhD clinical pharmacoinformatics; Clinical Pharmacy Lecturer; Alain University of Science and Technology; Alain, UAE. Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Clinical Pharmacy Department

Clinical pharmacy department


Parsons CE, Young KS, Rochat TJ, Kringelbach ML, Stein A. Postnatal depression and its effects on child development: a review of evidence from low-and middle-income countries. Br Med Bull 2012;101:57–79.

O’Hara MW, Swain AM. Rates and risk of postpartum depression-A meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry 1996;8:37-54.

Lund C, Breen A, Flisher AJ. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 2010;71:517–28.

Chandran M, Tharyan P, Muliyil J. Post-partum depression in a cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Incidence and risk factors. Br J Psychiatry 2002;181:499–04.

Husain N, Creed F, Tomenson B. Depression and social stress in Pakistan. Psychol Med 2000;30:395–02.

O'Hara MW, McCabe JE. Postpartum depression: current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 2013;9:379-07.

Demyttenaere K, Lenaerts H, Nijs P, Van Assche FA. Individual coping style and psychological attitudes during pregnancy predict depression levels during pregnancy and during postpartum. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1995;91:95-02.

Grace SL, Evindar A, Stewart DE. The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: A review and critical analysis of the literature. Archives of Women’s Mental Health 2003;6(4):263-74.

Patel V, DeSouza N, Rodrigues M. Postnatal depression and infant growth and development in low income countries: a cohort study from Goa, India. Arch Dis Child 2003;88:34–37.

Murray L, Arteche A, Fearon P, Halligan S, Cooper P, Goodyer I. Maternal postnatal depression and the development of depression in offspring Up to 16 years of age. J Am Acad Child Adolescent Psychiatry 2011;50(5):460-70.

Abou-Saleh MT, Ghubash R. The prevalence of early postpartum psychiatric morbidity in Dubai: A transcultural perspective. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;95:428–32.

Green K, Broome H, Mirabella J. Postnatal depression among mothers in the United Arab Emirates: socio-cultural and physical factors. Psychol Health Med 2006;11(4):425–31.

Hamdan A, Tamim H. Psychosocial risk and protective factors for postpartum depression in the United Arab Emirates. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2010;14(2):125-33.

Yehia DB, Callister LC, Ayman HM. Prevalence and predictors of postpartum depression among arabic muslim jordanian women serving in the military. J Perinatal Neonatal Nursing 2013;27(1):25-33.

Zeadna SA, Shriqui VK, Zeadna A, Lauden A, Vardi IS. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and postpartum depression symptoms among arab-bedouin women in southern israel. Depression Anxiety 2015;32(2):120-8.

Dietz PM, Williams SB, Callaghan WM, Bachman DJ, Whitlock EP, Hornbrook MC. Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(10):1515-20.

Taveras EM, Capra AM, Braveman PA, Jensvold NG, Escobar GJ, Lieu TA. Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Pediatrics 2003;112:108-15.

Figueiredo B, Canário C, Field T. Breastfeeding is negatively affected by prenatal depression and reduces postpartum depression. Psychol Med 2014;44(5):927-36.

Misri S, Sinclair DA, Kuan AJ. Breast-feeding and postpartum depression: is there a relationship. Can J Psychiatr 1997;42(10):1061-5.

Henderson JJ, Evans SF, Straton JAY, Priest SR, Hagan R. Impact of postnatal depression on breastfeeding duration. Birth 2003;30(3):175-80.

McQueen K, Dennis CL. The relationship between infant-feeding outcomes and postpartum depression: a qualitative systematic review. Pediatrics 2009;123(4):736-51.

Garfield L, Holditch-Davis D, Carter CS, McFarlin BL, Schwertz D, Seng JS, et al. Risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in low-income women with very low-birth-weight infants. Adv Neonatal Care 2015;15(1):3-8.

Lederberg SS, Hafsatou D, Eugene D, Howard C, Fox MP, Wise LA. Stressful events during pregnancy and postpartum depressive symptoms. Journal of Women's Health 2015;24(5):384-93.

Hergüner S, Annagür A, Altunhan H, Örs R. 'Association of delivery type with postpartum depression, Perceived social support and maternal attachment. J Psychiatr Neurol Sci 2015;27(1):15-20.

Lynch CD, Prasad MR. Association between infertility treatment and symptoms of postpartum depression. Fertil Steril 2014;102(5):1416-21.

Gur EB, Genc M, Eskicioglu F, Kurtulmus S, Guclu S. The effect of vitamin D level in pregnancy on postpartum depression. Arch Womens Ment Health 2015;18(2):263-4.

Kozhimannil KB, Pereira MA, Harlow BL. Association between diabetes and perinatal depression among low-income mothers. JAMA 2009;301(8):842-7.

Hergüner S, Annagür A, Altunhan H, Örs R. Postpartum depression in mothers of infants with very low birth weight. Arch Neuropsychiatr/Noropsikiatri Arsivi 2013;50(1):30-3.

Phipps NA. Postpartum depression in adolescent and adult mothers: comparing prenatal risk factors and predictive models. Maternal Child Health J 2015;17(6):1071-9.

Rogers CE, Kidokoro H, Wallendorf M, Inder TE. Identifying mothers of very preterm infants at-risk for postpartum depression and anxiety before discharge. J Perinatol 2015;33(3):171-6.

Bashir MYD, Callister LC, Mansour AH. Prevalence and predictors of postpartum depression among arabic muslim jordanian women serving in the military. J Perinatal Neonatal Nursing 2013;27(1):25-33.

O'hara MW, Swain AM. Rates and risk of postpartum depression—a meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry 1996;8(1):37-54.

Gao L, Chan SW, You L. Experiences of postpartum depression among first-time mothers in mainland China'. J Adv Nursing 2015;66(2):303-12.

Schmidt RM, Wiemann CM, Rickert VI, Smith EO. Moderate to severe depressive symptoms among adolescent mothers followed four years postpartum. J Adolesc Health 2006;38(6):712-8.



How to Cite

Alomar, M. J. “FACTORS AFFECTING POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN OF THE UAE AND OMAN”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, July 2015, pp. 231-3, https://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/6121.



Original Article(s)