EFFICACY OF EXTRACTS OF SOME PLANTS IN AVOIDING FUNGAL DISEASES OF STORED CEREALS
Keywords:Grains, Storage fungi, Plants extracts, Phenols, Mycotoxins, Phytofungicides
ABSTRACT Â Â
Objective: Plant metabolites and plant-based pesticides appear to be one of the better alternatives to the synthetic pesticides. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the antifungal properties of the aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and chloroform extracts of the leaves and stems of five wild plants (Astrachantha echinus; Seriphidium herba-album; Peganum harmala; Diplotaxis acris and Tamarix aphylla) collected from Tabuk deserts of KSA, against seed-born mycoflora isolated from stored corn, wheat and barley grains.
Methods: In vitro antifungal activities of the 5 extracts were tested using the poisoned food technique. Â Separation Â ofÂ Â Â the differentÂ Â Â fractionsÂ Â Â from selected extracts were carried out using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterize the separated fractions and estimate the in vivo reduction in mycotoxins levels due to plants extracts.
Results: Most of these extracts significantly suppressed radial growth of the tested fungi in vitro with varying levels and/or caused their complete inhibition (100%, P â‰¤ 0.01). Results of separation of selected extracts using TLC, and then their characterization by HPLC analysis revealed that these promising extracts Â were rich in p-Coumaric acid, Catechin, Caffeic acid, Cinnamic acid, Ferulic acid, Vanillic acid and Gallic acid in concentrations ranging from 97.0 Âµg mL-1 (Vanillic acid) to 471.1 Âµg mL-1 (Gallic acid). Â In addition, methanolic, ethanolic extracts of Astrachantha echinus and Seriphidium herba-album plants showed potent in vivo antimycotoxigenic activity (P â‰¤ 0.01) against toxigenic isolates of Apergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in comparison with the synthetic fungicide.
Conclusion: These novel methanolic, ethanolic extracts of Astrachantha echinus and Seriphidium herba-album plants could be commercially used as worldwide ecofriendly phytofungicides to prevent fungal biodeterioration of cereals; prevent mycotoxins production and/ or decreasing them to an acceptable level; displace the use of synthetic fungicides and high cost refrigeration of cereals during storage.
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