IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF THE HERBAL MIXTURE IN TRIPHALA ON HUMAN T LYMPHOCYTES (MOLT-4)

Authors

  • Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 2Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand
  • Pattana Sripalakit 2Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand

Keywords:

Triphala, Immunomodulatory activity, MOLT-4 cells, Interferon-g, Interleukin-10, Th1Th2 balance

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate effect of different proportions of Terminalia bellerica Roxb (TB):Terminalia chebula Retz (TC):Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) in triphala extract on immunological activity and to determine the possibility of applying the appropriate extract for health and immune disorders.

Methods: The extracts with different proportions of TB: TC: PE (w/w/w), i.e.12:8:4 (F1), 4:12:8 (F2), 8:4:12 (F3) and 8:8:8 (F4), were prepared by decoction in water and dried under vacuum. Gallic acid, a major compound in triphala, was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effect of the extracts on IFN-g and IL-10 cytokine production produced by MOLT-4 cells was determined by ELISA.

Results: The results show that F1, F4 and TB extracts significantly stimulated IFN-g production but no alteration in IL-10 expression was observed. With LPS induction, F1, F2, F3 and PE extracts significantly inhibited IFN-g production, while F2, F3, TB and TC extracts inhibited IL-10 production. By determining the IFN-g/IL-10 cytokine ratio, we found that the Th1/Th2 balance after treatment with triphala extract was mainly skewed toward a Th1-like response. With LPS induction, only the F1 extract could restore the balance of immunity by shifting the Th2 response to a normal level.

Conclusion: Our investigation indicates that different proportions of triphala extracts and induction conditions affect cytokine production, with a predominant Th1 response. F4, the equal proportion triphala extract, could be applied as a healthy herbal drink. F1, containing a high proportion of T. bellerica, was a promising extract as an effective therapeutic intervention against Th2 imbalance diseases such as allergy and autoimmune disease or for use with cancer vaccines.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

WHO: The World Medicines Situation. Traditional medicines: Global situation, issues and challenges. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.

Huang C, Lin S, Liao P, Young S, Yang C. The immuno pharmaceutical effects and mechanisms of herb medicine. Cell Mol Immunol 2008;5:23-31.

Hackett CJ. Innate immune activation as a broad-spectrum biodefense strategy: Prospects and research challenges. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:686-94.

Nandy AK, Podda G, Sahu M, Manto P, Shashi B. Triterpenoids and their glucosides from Terminalia bellerica. Phytochemistry 1989;28:2769-72.

Row LR, Murty PS. Chemical examination of Terminalia belerica Roxb. Indian J Chem 1970;8:1047-8.

Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:183-93.

Nithya Devi P, Kaleeswari S, Poonkothai M. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of fruit extracts of Terminalia bellerica. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:639-42.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM, et al. In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and its constituents. Phytother Res 2005;19:582-6.

Chaudhary SK, Mukherjee PK, Nema NK, Bhadra S, Saha BP. ACE inhibition activity of standardized extract and fractions of Terminalia bellerica. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2012;12:273-7.

Saraphanchotiwitthaya A, Sripalakit P, Ingkaninan K. Effects of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro. Maejo Int J Sci Technol 2008;2:400-7.

Singh D, Singh D, Choi S, Zo S, Painuli RM, Kwon SW, et al. Effect of extracts of Terminalia chebula on proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts cells: an alternative approach for wound healing. Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2014;2014:1-13.

Poltanov EA, Shikov AN, Dorman HJD, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP, et al. Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements. Phytother Res 2009;23:1309–15.

Bhattacharya A, Chatterjee A, Ghoshal S, Bhattacharya SK. Antioxidant activity of tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (amla). Indian J Exp Biol 1999;37(7):676-80.

Sreeramulu D, Raghunath M. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of roots, tubers and vegetables commonly consumed in India. Food Res Int 2009;43:1017–20.

Adams LS, Seeram NP, Aggarwal BB, Takada YS, Heber D. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signalling in colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:980–5.

Takagi N, Sanashiro T. Health foods containing anti-oxidative and anti-allergy food materials. Jpn Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1996;10:65-70.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Malagi KL, Kamath MS. The evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Tripala (an ayurvedic rejuvenating drug) in the mice exposed to radiation. Phytomedicine 2002;9:99-108.

El-Mekkawey M, Merelhy M. Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase. Chem Pharm Bull 1995;43:641-8.

Sandhya T, Mishra KP. Cytotoxic of breast cancer cell line, MCF 7 and T 47D to triphala and its modification by antioxidants. Cancer Lett 2006;238:304-13.

Sabu MC, Ramadasan Kuttan. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:155-60.

Jagetia GC, Malagi KJ, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P, Veruva RR. Triphala, an ayurvedic rasayana drug, protects mice against radiation-induced lethality by free-radical scavenging. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:971–8.

Karamac M, Kosinska A, Pegg R. Content of gallic acid in selected extracts. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 2006;15/56(1):55-8.

Manosroi A, Saraphanchotiwitthaya A, Manosroi J. Immunomodulatory activities of Clausena excavata Burm. f wood extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;89:155-60.

Oppenheim JJ. Cytokines: past, present, and future. Int J Hematol 2001;74:3–8.

Jeong HJ, Chung HS, An HJ, Seo SW, Kim TG, Won JH, et al. The immune-enhancing effect of the herbal combination Bouum-Myunyuk-Dan. Biol Pharm Bull 2004;27(1):29-33.

Swain SL, Bradley LM, Crof M, Tonkonoggy S, Atkins G, Weinberg AD, et al. Helper T-cell subset: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development. Immunol Rev 1991;123:115-44.

Burns JJ, Zhao L, Taylor EW, Spelman K. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity. Toxicology 2010;278(1):140-59.

Fitch FW, Mckisic MD, Lancki DW, Gajewski TF. Differential regulation of murine T lymphocyte subsets. Annu Rev Immunol 1993;11:29-48.

Peleman R, Wu J, Fargeas C, Delespesse G. Recombinant interleukin 4 suppresses the production of interferon gamma by human mononuclear cells. J Exp Med 1989;170:1751-6.

Wagner H. Trends and challenges in phytomedicine: research in the New Millennium. In: Yaniv Z, Bachrach U. editors. Handbook of Medicinal Plants. New York: Food Products Press/Haworth Medical Press; 2005.

Horani A, Shoseyov D, Ginsburg I, Mruwat R, Doron S, Amer J, et al. Triphala (PADMA) extract alleviates bronchial hyperreactivity in a mouse model through liver and spleen immune modulation and increased anti-oxidative effects. Ther Adv Respir Dis 2012;6(4):199-210.

Sabina EP, Rasool MK, Mathew L. In vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory effects of Indian ayurvedic herbal formulation triphala on experimental induced inflammation. Pharmacologyonline 2009;2:840-9.

Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Manikandan S, Muthuvel A, Rajamani R, Sheeladevi R. Immunomodulatory effect of Triphala during experimentally induced noise stress in albino rats. J Health Sci 2007;53(1):142-5.

Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Manikandan S, Narayanan GS, Sheeladevi R. Effect of Triphala on oxidative stress and on cell-mediated immune response against noise stress in rats. Mol Cell Biochem 2006;283(1-2):67-74.

Srikumar R, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R. Immunomodulatory activity of triphala on neutrophil functions. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28(8):1398-403.

Romagnani S. Human Th1 and Th2:doubt no more. Immunol Today 1991;12:256-7.

Dalgleish AG. Cancer vaccines. Br J Cancer 2000;82;1619-24.

Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Mishra KP. Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug. Cancer Lett 2006;231(2):206-14.

Kaur S, Michael H, Arora S, Härkönen PL, Kumar S. The in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Triphala-an Indian herbal drug. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97(1):15-20.

Csermely P. Strong links are important, but weak links stabilize them. Trends Biochem Sci 2004;29:331–4.

Csermely P, Agoston V, Pongor S. The efï¬ciency of multi-target drugs: the network approach might help drug design. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2005;26:178–82.

Jia W, Gao WY, Yan YQ, Wang J, Xu ZH, Zheng WJ, et al. The rediscovery of ancient Chinese herbal formulas. Phytother Res 2004;18:681–6.

Mills S, Bone K. Principles and practice of phytotherapy: modern herbal medicine. New York: Churchill Livingston; 2000.

Spelman K, Burns JJ, Nichols D, Winters N, Ottersberg S, Tenborg M. Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators. Altern Med Rev 2006;11:128–50.

Published

01-07-2015

How to Cite

Saraphanchotiwitthaya, A., and P. Sripalakit. “IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF THE HERBAL MIXTURE IN TRIPHALA ON HUMAN T LYMPHOCYTES (MOLT-4)”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, July 2015, pp. 282-8, https://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/6421.

Issue

Section

Original Article(s)