• Nitin Sati Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, HNB Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India
  • Rajendra Singh Department of Chemistry, HNB Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India
  • Randhir Dahiya Department of Pharmacy, MM College of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Ambala, India
  • Pratap Singh Department of Chemistry, HNB Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India
  • Om Prakash Sati Department of Chemistry, HNB Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India


Ribes glaciale, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Phenolic contents, Flavonoid contents


Objective: Ribes glaciale Wall. is used in folk medicine by the locals of North West Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India, but its pharmacological potentials are not well studied. This work evaluates antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the extract of Ribes glaciale Wall.

Methods: Antioxidant activity was assessed by studying free radical scavenging ability, total antioxidant capacity, ferrous ion chelation and reducing power of the extracts. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity was assessed by carrageenan induced rat paw edema and acetic acid induced writhing model respectively.

Results: The methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ribes glaciale Wall. Consists considerable amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The ethyl acetate extract was potent in scavenging DPPH free radical (IC50 55.7 μg/ml) while methanolic extract demonstrated higher ability to scavenge ABTS free radical (TEAC 11802.2). Methanolic extract exhibited higher ferrous ion chelation activity (61% at 400 µg/ml). The ethyl acetate extract demonstrated superior reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. The methanolic extract was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Administration of methanolic extract of Ribes glaciale exhibited dose dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan and also showed significant reduction in number of acetic acid induced abdominal writhing.

Conclusion: The study revealed antioxidant potential of methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of Ribes glaciale Wall. The methanolic extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity and indicate the need for its further phytochemical evaluation.



Download data is not yet available.


Gaur RD. Flora of district Garhwal, North West Himalaya. Transmedia: Srinagar Garhwal (Uttarakhand, India); 1999. p. 105-6.

Yinrong L, Yeap FL. Unusual anthocyanin reaction with acetone leading to pyranoanthocyanin formation. Tetrahedron Lett 2001;42:1371–3.

Yinrong L, Yeap FL, Herbert W. Nigrumin-5-p-coumarate and nigrumin-5-ferulate, two unusual nitrile-containing metabolites from black currant (Ribes nigrum) seed. Phytochem 2002;59:465–8.

Pieri GB, Baghdikian R, Elias E, Ollivier VM, Balansard G. Flavonoids from the leaves of Ribes nigrum L. Identification of a malonyl flavonol and HPLC analysis. Chim Pharmacol 2014:422-5.

Mbaebie BO, Edeoga HO, Afolayan AJ. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2(2):118-24.

Patel DK, Kumar R, Prasad SK, Hemalatha S. Pedalium murex Linn. (Pedaliaceae) fruits: A comparative antioxidant activity of its different fractions. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011 ;1(5):395–400.

Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantification of antioxidant capacity through the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to determination of Vitamin E. Ann Biochem 1999;269:337-41.

Oyaizu M. Studies on product browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Japan J Nutr 1986;44:307-15.

Sheng JC, Zhou J, Wang L, Xu J, Hu Q. Antioxidant activity of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts from Brazilian propolis. Eur Food Res Technol 2007;225:249-53.

Roberta R, Nicoletta P, Anna P, Ananth P, Min Y, Catherine RE. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biomed 1999;26:1231-7.

Wang T, Jonsdottir R, Olafsdottir G. Total phenolic compounds, radical scavenging and metal chelation of extracts from Icelandic seaweeds. Food Chem 2009;116:240-8.

Rao CV, Verma AR, Gupta PK, Vijayakumar M. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Fumaria indica whole plant extract in experimental animals. Acta Pharm 2007;57:491–8.

Collier HOJ, Dineen LC, Johnson CA, Schneider C. The abdominal constriction response and its suppression by analgesic drugs in the mouse. Br J Pharmacol 1963;32:295–310.

El-gazzar, Hussein HAR, Hafez HN. Synthesis and biological evaluation of thieno[2,3-d] pyrimidine derivatives for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity. Acta Pharm 2007;32:395–411.

Yuan Z, Wang ZZ. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of two Phlomis species: A correlation study. Chem Rev Biol 2009;332:816-26.

Jingsheng H, Huang B, Xiaoquan B, Jun T, Ling Z, Youwei W. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract from Meconopsis quintuplinervia. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;141:104-10.

Amarowicz R, Pegg RB, Raim M, Bral P, Weil JA. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from the Canadian Prairies. Food Chem 2004;84:551–62.

Kaviarasan S, Naik GH, Gangabhagirathi R, Anuradha CV, Priyadarsinin KI. In vitro studies on antiradical and antioxidant activities of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds. Food Chem 2007;103:31–7.

Chi CW, Hua BL, Ka-Weng C, Feng C. A systematic survey of antioxidant activity of 30 Chinese medicinal plants using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Food Food Chem 2006;97:705-11.

Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeida LM. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetoaminophen, salycilate and 5-aminosalycilate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch Biochem Biophys 1994;315:161-9.



How to Cite

Sati, N., R. Singh, R. Dahiya, P. Singh, and O. P. Sati. “ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF RIBES GLACIALE WALL EXTRACTS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, July 2015, pp. 344-7,



Original Article(s)