• Fouad El-akhal
  • Raja Guemmouh
  • Saad Maniar
  • Khalid Taghzouti
  • Abdelhakim El-Ouali Lalami Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of Epidemiological and Environmental Hygiene, Regional Health Directorate, EL Ghassani Hospital, 30000 Fez, Morocco


Objective: We evaluated the properties of larvicidal activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum majorana family of Lamiaceae collected at Taounate province in the North East of Morocco, against the larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae). There are no published data on the effect of these plants on this mosquito, formerly responsible for indigenous malaria.

Methods: Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard WHO protocol, slightly modified, using the Ethanol as a solvent instead of DMSO. The method consists of making expose the larvae of stages 3 and 4 of the species An. labranchiae to the various concentrations of essential oils. After 24 h of contact, we counted living and dead larvae.

Results: The mortality percentages were determined after 24 h. Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were calculated and measured. They were respectively of the order of 351.63 µg/ml and 621.34 µg/ml for the essential oil of Thymus vulgari; whereas Origanum majorana were found of the order of LC50 = 107.13 µg/ml and LC90 = 365.9 µg/ml.

Conclusion: The results could be useful and interesting for the new application in the production of biocides against the larvae of Anopheles. Also, this information will be needed for the control program and for improving the vector control practices.

Keywords: Thymus vulgaris, Origanum majorana, Larvicidal activity, Anopheles labranchiae, Biological tests, North Eastern Morocco


Download data is not yet available.


Radhika W, Ankita R, Jasdeep KS, Roopa S, Naim W, Sarita K. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:152-5.

Anupam G, Nandita C, Goutam C. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides. Indian J Med Res 2012;135:581-98.

Vatandoost H, Sanei Dehkordi A, Sadeghi SM T, Davari B, Karimian F, Abai MR, et al. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Kelussia odoratissima. Exp Parasitol 2012;132:470-4.

WHO. World Malaria Report, World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland; 2010. p. 1-15.

Ceccato P, Vancutsem C, Klaver R, Rowland J, Connor SJ. A vectorial capacity product to monitor changing malaria transmission potential in epidemic regions of Africa. J Trop Med 2012. Doi: 10.1155/2012/595948. [Article in Press]

Faraj C, Adlaoui E, Elkhohli M, Herrak T, Chandre F. Review of temephos discriminating concentration for monitorien the susceptibility of Anophele labranchiae (Falleroni, 1926), Malaria vector in morocco. Malar Res Treat 2010. [Article in Press]

Faraj C, Adlaoui E, Ouahabi S, Rhajaoui M, Fontenille D, Lyagoubi M. Entomological investigations in the region of the last malaria focus in Morocco. Acta Trop 2009;109:70-3.

El Ouali Lalami A, Hindi T, Azzouzi A, Elghadraoui L, Maniar S, Faraj C, et al. Inventaire et répartition saisonnière des Culicidae dans le centre du Maroc. Entomologie Faunistique Faunistic Entomology 2010;62:131-8.

El Ouali Lalami A, Mohamed C, Ibensouda Koraichi S, Maniar S, El Maimouni N, Rhajaoui M. Imported malaria in northern central Morocco, 1997-2007. Sante 2009;19:43-7.

Trari B, Carnevale P. Malaria in Morocco: from pre-elimination to elimination, what risks for the future. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Ses Fil 2011;104:291-5.

Wang X, Li JL, Xing HJ, Xu SW. Review of the toxicology of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on fish. J Northeast Agric Univ 2011;18:88-92.

Chen W, Jing M, Bu J, Ellis Burnet J, Qi S, Song Q, et al. Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments from the peacock river drainage basin in xinjiang, china: a study of an arid zone in central Asia. Environ Monit Assess 2011;177:1-21.

Mohammed MP, Penmethsa KK. Assessment of pesticide residues in surface waters of Godavari delta, India J Mater Environ Sci 2014;5:33-6.

Djogbénou L. Vector controls methods against malaria and vector resistance to insecticides in Africa. Med Trop 2009;69:160-4.

Akiner MM, Simsek FM, Caglar SS. Insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Turkey. J Pestic Sci 2009;34:259-64.

El Ouali Lalami A, El-Akhal F, El Amri N, Maniar S, Faraj C. State resistance of the mosquito Culex pipiens towards temephos central Morocco. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Ses Fil 2014;107:194-8.

El Ouali Lalami A, El-akhal F, Oudrhiri W, Ouazzani CF, Guemmouh R, Grech H. Thymus essential oils (Thymus vulagris and Thymus satureioïdis) from the center of Morocco: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. Les Technologies De Laboratoire 2013;8:27-33.

Szczepanik M, Zawitowska B, Szumny A. Insecticidal activities of Thymus vulgaris essential oil and its components (thymol and carvacrol) against larvae of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae). Allelopathy J 2012;30:129-42.

Azizi A, Yan F, Honermeier B. Herbage yield, essential oil content and composition of three oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) populations as affected by soil moisture regimes and nitrogen supply. Ind Crops Prod 2009;29:554-61.

Himmi O, Dakki M, Trari B, El Agbani MA. Les Culicidae du maroc: clés d’identification avec donnés biologiques et écologiques. Travaux de l’institut Scientifiques. Série Zool Rabat 1995;44:1-51.

Brunhes J, Rhaim A, Geoffroy B, Angel G, Hervy JP. Les moustiques de l’Afrique Méditerranéenne: Logiciel d’identification et d’enseignement [CD-ROM]. Montpellier:IRD and IPT; 2000.

Abbott WS. A methode of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 1925;18:265-7.

Giner M, Vassal M, Vassal C, Chiroleu F, Kouaik Z. WinDL Software version 2.0, CIRAD-CA. URBI/MABIS. Montpellier; 1999.

Pavela R. Larvicidal effects of various Euro-Asiatic plants against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Parasitol Res 2008;102:555-9.

Pavela R. Insecticidal properties of several essential oils on the house fly (Musca domestica L.). Phytother Res 2008;22:274-8.

Pavela R, Vrchotová N, Tříska J. Mosquitocidal activities of thyme oils (Thymus vulgaris L.) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Parasitol Res 2009;105:1365-70.

El-Akhal F, Greche H, Ouazzani CF, Guemmouh R, El Ouali Lalami A. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Culex pipiens essential oil of Thymus vulgaris grown in Morocco. J Mater Environ Sci 2015;1:214-9.

El-Akhal F, El Ouali Lalami A, Ez Zoubi Y, Greche H, Guemmouh R. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:746-50.

Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbecka D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils–A review. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:446-75.

Tabrizi L, Koocheki A, Moghaddam PR, Mahallati MN. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Thymus transcaspicus in natural habitats. Chem Nat Compd 2010; 46:121-4.

Imelouane B, Amhamdi H, Wathelet JP, Ankit M, Khedid K, El Bachiri A. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) from Eastern Morocco. Int J Agric Biol 2009;1:205-8.

Park YU, Koo HN, Kim GH. Chemical composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of Thymus magnus against Aedes albopictus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2012;28:192-8.

De la Torre Rodriguez YC, Martínez Estrada FR, Flores Suarez AE, Waksman de Torres N, Salazar-Aranda R. Larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts from 11 native plants from North Eastern Mexico. J Med Entomol 2013;50:310-3.

Moharramipour S, Taghizadeh A, Meshkatalsadat MH, Talebi AA, Fathipour Y. Repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Thymus persicus against Tribolium castaneum and Callosobruchus maculatus. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 2008;73:639-42.

Saroukolai AT, Moharramipour S, Meshkatalsadat MH. Insecticidal properties of Thymus persicus essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus oryzae. J Pestic Sci 2010;83:3-8.

Tchoumbougnang F, Jazet Dongmo PM, Lambert Sameza M, Nkouaya Mbanjo EG, Tiako Fotso GB, Amvam Zollo PH, et al. Activité larvicide sur Anopheles gambiae giles et composition chimique des huiles essentielles extraites de quatre plantes cultivées au cameroun. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 2009;13:77-84.

Dargahi L, Razavi-Azarkhiavi K, Ramezani M, Reza Abaee M, Behravan J. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Thymus transcaspicus against Anopheles stephensi. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:589-91.

El-Beyrouthy M, Arnold N, Delelis-Dusollier A, DuPont F. Plants used as remedies Antirheumatic and antineuralgic in the traditional medicine of Lebanon. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;120:315-34.

Loizzo MR, Menichini F, Conforti F, Tundis R, Bonesi M, Saab AM, et al. Chemical analysis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase activities of Origanum ehrenbergii Boiss and Origanum syriacum L. essential oils. Food Chem 2009;117:174-80.

Kumar SBVN, Rupesh-Kumar M, Tamizhmani T, Fasalu ROM, Mohamed NK. Majorana hortensis (M.): a review update. Pharma Sci Monit 2011;2:59-74.

Pimple BP, Patel AN, Kadam PV, Patil MJ. Microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012;2:897-903.

Cavalcanti ESB, de Morais SM, Lima MAA, Santana EWP. Larvicidal activity of essential oils from Brazilian plants against Aedes aegypti L. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2004;99:541-4.

Anderasen MH. Emerging resistance to Temephos in Anopheles stephensi in the Al dhahira region of oman. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2006. p. 1-13.

Akinera MM, Caglarb SS, Simsekc FM. Yearly changes of insecticide susceptibility and possible insecticide resistance mechanisms of Anopheles maculipennis Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) in Turkey. Acta Trop 2013;126:280-5.



How to Cite

El-akhal, F., R. Guemmouh, S. Maniar, K. Taghzouti, and A. E.-O. Lalami. “LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND ORIGANUM MAJORANA (LAMIACEAE) AGAINST OF THE MALARIA VECTOR ANOPHELES LABRANCHIAE (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, Mar. 2016, pp. 372-6,



Original Article(s)