• Djamila Abdelkader Abid
  • Nassima Mokhtari Soulimane Laboratory of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Department of Biology, University of Tlemcen 13000, Algeria, INSERM UMR 866, ‘Lipids Nutrition Cancer’, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Life, Earth and Environment Sciences, Dijon 21000, France
  • Hafida Merzouk
  • Michel Narce


Objective: The aim of the present work was to study how maternal dietary linseed oil modulates lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and adipose tissue lipase responses to cafeteria diet in rats during pregnancy and lactation and their offspring at weaning and adulthood.

Methods: The dams were fed a control (C) or a Cafeteria (CAF) diet enriched or non-enriched with linseed oil at 2, 5%. Changes in serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels, liver and adipose tissue lipids, LCAT, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activities were determined at the end of the experiment.

Results: The cafeteria diet led to higher energy intake, body weight, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, liver and adipose TC and TG contents and LPL activity in dams and their pups. Pregnant and lactating mothers showed lower HSL activity with any changes in serum LCAT activity. In contrast, their offspring at day 90 had a significant increase in HSL activity and a decrease in LCAT activity. Linseed oil (LO) supplementation modulates liver and adipose tissue TC and TG contents in both control and obese dams and their offspring, with beneficial effects resulting in lower body weight, decreased in TC,TG, low density lipoprotein-high density lipoprotein1(LDL-HDL1-C), increased in HDL2,3-C,serum LCAT activity and up-regulated lipolytic enzyme activities.

Conclusion: The supplement of linseed oil in the diet of pregnant and lactating dams is effective in amelioration of lipid profile and modulation of enzyme activities in these dams and their offspring which might contribute to prevent obesity and dyslipidemia.

Keywords: Linseed oil, Cafeteria diet, Lipid, Enzymes, Pregnancy, Offspring


Download data is not yet available.


Khalesi S, Jamaluddin R, Ismail A. Effect of raw and heated flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) on lood lipid profiles in rats. Int J Adv Sci Technol 2011;4:84-9.

Bouanane S, Merzouk H, Benkalfat NB, Soulimane N, Merzouk SA, Gresti J, et al. Hepatic and very low-density lipoprotein fatty acids in obese offspring of overfed dams. Metab Clin Exp 2010;59:1701–9.

Galtier-Dereure F, Boegner C, Bringer J. Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71 Suppl 5:1242-8.

McMillen IC, Robinson JS. Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 2005;85:571-633.

Boney CM, Verma A, Tucker R, Vohr BR. Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 2005;115:290-6.

Higdon JV, Frei B. Obesity and oxidative stress: a direct link to CVD? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:365-7.

Despre's J, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Pibarot P, Mathieu P, Larose E. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008;28:1039-49.

Barcelo-Coblijn G, Murphy EJ. Alpha-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n-3 fatty acid levels. Prog Lipid Res 2009;48:355–74.

Tzang BS, Yang SF, Fu SG, Yang HC, Sun HL, Chen YC. Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on cholesterol metabolism of hamsters. Food Chem 2009;114:1450–5.

Troina AA, Figueiredo MS, Moura EG, Boaventura GT, Soares LL, Cardozo LF, et al. Maternal flaxseed diet during lactation alters milk composition and programs the offspring body composition, lipid proï¬le and sexual function. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:697–703.

Rasmy GE. Protective effect of linseed oil on hyperlipidemia in experimental animals. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2007;5:9-17.

Fukumitsu S, Aida K, Ueno N, Ozawa S, Takahashi Y, Kobori M. Flaxseed lignan attenuates high-fat-diet-induced fat accumulation and induces adiponectin expression in mice. Br J Nutr 2008;100:669–76.

Zhang W, Wang X, Liu Y, Tian H, Flickinger B, Empie MW, et al. Dietary flaxseed lignan extract lowers plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Br J Nutr 2008;99:1301–9.

Sheril A, Jeyakumar SM, Jayashree T, Giridharan NV, Vajreswari A. Impact of feeding polyunsaturated fatty acids on cholesterol metabolism of dyslipidemic obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain. Atherosclerosis 2009;204:136-40.

Havel RJ, Eder HA, Bragdon JH. The distribution and chemical composition of ultracentrifugally separated lipoproteins in human serum. J Clin Invest 1955;34:1345–53.

Redgrave TG, Robert DCK, West CE. Separation of plasma lipoproteins by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Anal Biochem 1975;65(1 Suppl 2):42–9.

Meghelli-Bouchenak M, Boquillon M, Belleville J. Serum lipoprotein composition and amounts during the consumption of two different low protein diets followed by a balanced diet. Nutr Rep Int 1989;39:323–43.

Glomset JA, Wright JL. Some properties of cholesterol esterifying enzyme in human plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta 1964;89:266–71.

Merzouk H, Lamri MY, Meghelli-Bouchenak M, Korso N, Prost J, Beleville J. Serum lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity and HDL2 and HDL3 composition in small for gestational age newborns. Acta Pediatr 1997;86:528–53.

Kabbaj O, Yoon SR, Holm C, Rose J, Vitale ML, Pelletier MR. Relationship of the hormone-sensitive lipase-mediated modulation of cholesterol metabolism in individual compartments of the testis to serum pituitary hormone and testosterone concentrations in a seasonal breeder, the mink (Mustela vison). Biol Reprod 2003;68:722–34.

Nilsson-Ehle P, Ekman R. Rapid, simple and speciï¬c assay for lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. Artery 1977;3:194–209.

Jovanovic L. Nutrition and pregnancy: the link between dietary intake and diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rep 2004;4:266-72.

Tzanetakou IP, Mikhailidis DP, Perrea DN. Nutrition during pregnancy and the effect of arbohydrates on the offspring’s metabolic profile: in search of the perfect maternal dietâ€. Open Cardiovasc Med J 2011;5:103-9.

Bayol SA, Simbi BH, Bertrand JA, Stickland NC. Offspring from mothers fed a ‘junk food’ diet in pregnancy and lactation exhibit exacerbated adiposity that is more pronounced in females. J Physiol 2008;586:3219–30.

Nivoit P, Morens C, Van Assche FA, Jansen E, Poston L, Remacle C, et al. Established diet-induced obesity in female rats leads to offspring hyperphagia, adiposity and insulin resistance. Diabetologia 2009;52:1133–42.

Benkalfat NB, Merzouk H, Bouanane S, Merzouk SA, Bellenger J, Gresti J, et al. Altered adipose tissue metabolism in offspring of dietary obese rat dams. Clin Sci 2011;121:19–28.

Delarue J, LeFoll C, Corporeau C, Lucas D. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a nutritional tool to prevent insulin resistance associated to type 2 diabetes and obesity? Reprod Nutr Dev 2004;44:289-99.

El-Khayat Z, Abo El-Matty D, Rasheed W, Hussein J, Shaker O, Raafat J. Role of cell membrane fatty acids in insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats treated with flaxseed oil. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5 Suppl 2:146-51.

King JC. Physiology pregnancy and nutrient metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71 Suppl 5:1218–25.

Wiesenfeld PW, Babu US, Collins TF. Flaxseed increased alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid and decreased arachidonic acid in serum and tissues of rat dams and offspring. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41:841-55.

Xu J, Yang W, Deng Q, Huang Q, Yang J, Huang F. Flaxseed oil and α-lipoic acid combination reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Lipids Health Dis 2012;11:148.

Morise A, Serougne C, Gripois D. Effects of dietary alpha linolenic acid on cholesterol metabolism in male and female hamsters of the LPN strain. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15:51-61.

Kim HK, Choi S, Choi H. Suppression of hepatic fatty acid synthase by feeding alpha-linolenic acid rich perilla oil lowers plasma triacylglycerol level in rats. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15:485–92.

Huong DT, Ide T. Dietary lipoic acid-dependent changes in the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats. Br J Nutr 2008;100:79–87.

Murase T, Aoki M, Tokimitsu I. Supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid-rich diacylglycerol suppresses fatty liver formation accompanied by an up-regulation of beta oxidation in zucker fatty rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005;1733(2 Suppl 3):224-31.

Ide T, Kobayashi H, Ashakumary L, Rouyer IA, Takahashi Y, Aoyama T, et al. Comparative effects of perilla and fish oils on the activity and gene expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000;1485:23–35.

Tou JCL, Chen J, Thompson LU. Flaxseed and its lignan precursor, Seco iso lariciresinol diglycoside, affect pregnancy outcome and reproductive development in rats. J Nutr 1998;128:1861–8.

Tian L, Jia L, Mingde F, Tian Y, Xu Y, Tian H, et al. Alterations of high density lipoprotein subclasses in obese subjects. Lipids 2006;41:789–96.

Wang H, Eckel RH. Lipoprotein lipase: from gene to obesity. Am J Physiol: Endocrinol Metab 2009;297:271–88.

Farese RV, Yost TJ, Eckel RH. Tissue-speciï¬c regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity by insulin/glucose in normal-weight humans. Metab Clin Exp 1991;40;214–6.

Rolland V, Dugail I, Liepvre XL, Lavau M. Evidence of increased glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase promoter activities in transiently transfected adipocytes from genetically obese rats. Biol Chem 1996;20:1102–6.

Paik HS. Lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in rat adipose tissue. Nutr Rev 1979;37:151-2.

Hwalla Baba N, Ghossoub Z, Habbal Z. Differential effects of dietary oils on plasma lipids, lipid peroxidation and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity in rats. Nutr Res 2000;20:1113-23.

Blaak EE, Van Baak MA, Kemerink GJ, Pakbiers MT, Heidendal GA, Saris WH. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of energy expenditure and forearm skeletal muscle metabolism in lean and obese men. Am J Physiol 1994;267(2, Suppl 1):306-15.

Jocken JW, Langin D, Smit E, Saris W, Valle C, Hul GB, et al. Adipose tri glyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression is decreased in the obese insulin resistant state. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:2292-9.



How to Cite

Abid, D. A., N. M. Soulimane, H. Merzouk, and M. Narce. “LINSEED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE AND TISSUE LIPASE ACTIVITIES IN PREGNANT OBESE RATS AND THEIR OFFSPRING”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, Mar. 2016, pp. 194-00,



Original Article(s)